Computer Networking

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Computer Networking

Computer networking is a process of sharing data and shared resources between two or more connected computers. The shared resources can include printer, Fax modem, Hard disk, CD – DVD Rom, Database and the data files. A computer network can be divided into a small or local area network, a networking between computers in a building of a office (LAN), medium sized network (MAN), a network between two offices in a city and Wide network (WAN) a network between the computers, one is locally and the other can be thousands of miles away in any other country of the world.

WAN connectivity is achieved by a network device known as “Router”. The internet is the world’s largest WAN network, where millions of computers from all over the globe and connected with each other.

Networking is the practice of linking two or more computers or devices with each other. The connectivity can be wired or wireless. A computer network can be categorized in different ways, depends on the geographical area as mentioned above.

There are two main types of the computer network client-server and peer to peer. In the client server computing, a computer plays a major role known as server, where the files, data in the form of web pages, docs or spread sheet files, video, database & resources are placed.

All the other computers in the client/server network are called clients and they get the data from the server. In the peer to peer network all the computers play the same role and no computer act as a centralized server. In the major businesses around the world client-server network model is in major use.

A network topology defines the structure, design or layout of a network. There are different topologies like bus, ring, star, mesh, hybrid etc. The star topology is most commonly used network topology. In the star topology, all the computers in the network are connected with a centralized device such as hub or switch. Thus forms a star like structure. If the hubs/switch fails to work for any reason then all the connectivity and communication between the computers of a network will be halted.

In the network, a common communication language is used by the computers and the network devices and this language is known as protocols. The most commonly used and popular protocols on the internet and in the home and other networks is called TCP/IP. TCP/IP is not a singleprotocol but it is a suite of several protocols.

A network can be a wired or wireless and TCP/IP protocol can work both in types of network.

A data flow in a computer network can be divided into seven logical layers called OSI layersmodel that was developed by Intel and Xerox Corporation and was standardized by ISO.

1. Application layer

2. Presentation layer

3. Session layer

4. Transport layer

5. Network layer

6. Data Link layer

a. Media access control sub-layer

b. Logical link control sub-layer

7. Physical layer.

A network can be divided into different scales and ranges and it depends on the requirement of the network and the geographical location. Computer Network can be divided into Local Area Network, Personal Area Network, Campus Area Network, Wireless Local Area Network,Metropolitan Area Network and Wide Area Network.

There are several network connection methods like HomePNA, Power line communication, Ethernet and Wifi connection method.A network can also be categorized into several different types based on the services it provides like Server farms, Storage area networks, Value control networks, Value-Added networks,SOHO network, Wireless network and Jungle networks.

Understanding Computer Networks

When most people think of computer networks they think of large businesses. Many people have networked their home systems to enable a shared internet connection, shared files and even shared printing capabilities. The process of sharing resources and data between more than one computer is referred to as computer networking. When you link the computers together they are capable of not only sharing the internet connection, printer, FAX and other components but are also capable of sharing files, pictures, songs and other data stored on the hard disk.

Networking Explained

The network can be divided into a local or small area network such as a LAN network where computers are shared within an office building or home space, MAN where two or more locations are connected throughout an area and WAN where the network can be created to connect to a home or office from anywhere in the country.

WAN is the most common use for connectivity, it allows the network to connect to millions of computers across the globe. The WAN network is the world’s largest network and through connection if a router and running the proper software you can be connected to any location from just about anywhere in the world.

Computer networks can be wired or wireless, although there are not many who use the wired feature these days. Depending on the set up you need, how you need to access the main computer and how many you need to link together will determine the type of network you need to create.

There are two main ways to connect the computers, through client-server systems and through peer-2-peer servers. The client-server network has a main computer or computers that work as the server for the network. The data, files, pictures, docs and other information is stored on these servers that are then accesses from various computers that are on the network. The other computers in the network are called the clients and they are linked to the server to get any or all of their information.

Peer-2-Peer networks allow each computer to choose what information will be shared. There is no main server where it is all stored, each hard drive is open to the network and each computer on the network will be given the appropriate access to the hard drives on each system. Most home users have the peer-2-peer network setup where they can pick and choose what information is needed or wanted from each system in the home on the network. Most businesses use the client-server network with different topologies or structures or designs within their layouts.

The common language or communications between computers when networking are known as protocols. The most popular and commonly used protocols are the TCP/IP where it works with several protocols and not just a single protocol. The TCP/IP protocol can be used and will work with either wired or wireless connections and can be used through the client-server or peer-2-peer networks.

Setting Up a Home Network

There are some great programs out there that will walk you through setting up a home network in no time. You do not have to be a network engineer and it takes little knowledge of how the network actually works. You basically only have to the systems you wish to connect or link together in the network, an internet connection and the ability to follow simple instructions. If you are setting up a wireless internet connection you will not have to worry about running cables from one computer to the next and the only thing that will be done is some simple changes in the networking section of each computer. You can create a secured connection that is protected with a password to ensure that you do not have an open connection to outsiders who wish to snoop through your shared files. You get the option on each system to choose what you want to share and what you do not. You can create a folder that is for the network and put it on a virtual drive, this way no one can enter the actual computer’s hard drive, just the file and what is stored on it. The process for computer networks is simple and easy to do and can make a multiple computer home run much smoother.

Computer Network Setup and Repair

Computer Network Repair wasn’t heard of a few years ago just as computers weren’t considered to be a necessity fifteen years ago. They were looked at as a high end luxury. However, things have changed and you will hardly find a home without a computer in it. There can be no business run at optimum levels without the help of a computer. The use of several different computers located in the same premise requires them to be connected using computer networks. However, if there is a computer networking problem, all computers may be affected.

Computer network repair is not something that all people are good at. A computer networking issues at the home or office requires immediate attention by a trained professional. Huntsville computer repair specialists know just what to do to get your network up and running. When your network gets setup by a network repair solutions professional you will be able to get your laptop and desktop computer communicating on your network, sharing files and much more. Huntsville computer repairs can provide you with the right kind of repair service at your premise at the most competitive pricing.

If you are not familiar with setting setup a network, you need specialized computer guru such as the computer repair in Huntsville AL, to address your problem. Security is very important as well. Many people don’t think about it when setting up their network but if the security of the network is jeopardized, then you are laying yourself open to hackers getting your information. This will allow them easy access to your network and spread malware from one computer to another. Computer networking problems can manifest themselves in several ways such as Network delays, denial of service, network security and unavailability of certain network services and can be set right by Computer repairs in Huntsville AL.

Large businesses usually have a team of networking professionals to supervise and repair network problems. This is not possible for small business owners to have a team of networking professionals so they may choose a Huntsville computer repair specialist to do the job. These guys can monitor your network and keep hackers at bay. If there is a concern you could always call for Computer repair in Huntsville AL.

In case of a concern with just one desktop or a laptop, you can attempt to repair it yourself or call a computer repair service shop. But, what would you do if there is a concern with the network. This is when you will need experts to come for an in-house visit and analyze the issue. Onsite, at home or office computer repair service is extremely popular and it can be possible with Huntsville PC repair technicians that will come to your home or office and troubleshoot and repair the problem. They can be quick, effective and affordable and get you back online in minutes.

Some Huntsville PC repair service companies offer remote monitoring and support. If your office has network intense tasks being performed all the time and you don’t have the budget for a network monitoring service then you should have a good Huntsville computer repair specialist on stand-by. A point to be noted is that some network repairs are possible remotely but for all else an onsite visit is essential.

How to Set Up a Home Computer Network

Many people want to know how to set up a home computer network so that they can benefit from having one link for their computers, external storage devices, printers, gaming consoles, files, telephones and home entertainment systems that have wired or wireless networking capabilities.

Network Architecture

The first stage is to decide on your network architecture, i.e. the network type: wired, wireless or mixed, the devices you would like include into your network and how they will be connected. Three main aspects to keep in mind are:

  1. The network speed
  2. The ease of cabling (for non-wireless devices)
  3. The cost

The three most common network types are (1) Ethernet (wired connectivity using special cable), (2) Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi) or (3) Phone Line (HPNA). Also, there are networks that use a home electrical wiring for communication. Wireless (Wi-Fi) based network can operate in one of two radio bands – 2.4 or 5 Gigahertz or in both – 2.4 and 5 Gigahertz radio bands on dual-band wireless networks.

Ethernet Network Setup

If good speed is your main concern, then Ethernet is a good option. The standard Ethernet router’s speed is 10/100 Mbps (Mega bits per second) and now you can find 1000 Mbps routers. It is also the least expensive of the network types. Once everything is connected, however, all three networks work the same.

Each home computer network that has more than two devices (computers and/or peripheral devices) consists of central device – a network router (wired and/or wireless) and a few network adapters – that connect network peripherals such as computers, printers, and storage devices to the network.

After choosing right type of network router, the next step is an adapter selection, of which Ethernet has three options – USB, PCI and PC Card. USB adapters plug straight into your computer or any peripheral device with USB port but the USB connection usually has a limit of 54 Mbps. PCI adapters (wired and wireless) less expensive and very fast but are inserted internally so you’ll need to open the computer. PC Cards are for laptops.

After this come the cables for connections between the computers. Ethernet cables are of different CAT numbers which are an indication of quality. CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6 are of good quality. Connecting two computes will require a crossover cable. Connecting three or more computers requires an Ethernet Router, Switch or Hub.

Next, install the network drives and the network card that came with it on your PC, following the installation procedures instructions. When network drivers are properly installed the link lights for the nub and Ethernet cards come on. Link lights will not come on until everything is properly connected.

Determining the number of routers or hubs, cables and adapters you need depends on how many computers and peripheral devices you are linking up. Two computers will require a cross-over cable, two adaptors and one router, hub or switch (optional). Three or more computers require one router, hub or switch plus adapters and cables for each machine. Afterwards you must configure the network and this stage has four main elements and two levels.

4 Configuration Elements:

  1. NetBEUI
  2. Network Adapter Driver
  3. Microsoft Windows Client
  4. Microsoft Windows File and Print sharing

2 Configuration Levels:

  1. The first level of configuration is the protocol levels which refers to the language that computers use to ‘talk’ with each other. For basic home networks NetBEUI is a good protocol as it is fast, non-complicated and easy to configure.
  2. The second level of configuration is in regards to how Windows ‘talks’ to other Windows during file and print sharing through the first protocol level. The second level has two parts: ‘Client for Microsoft Windows’ and the ‘File and Printer’ sharing for Windows.

After the Network’s Setup

Once the configuration is complete then you move into troubleshooting. This means clicking on the “Network” folder in Windows Explorer to ensure you can see all the other computers on your network. If you get a “network inaccessible” message, try again after a minute or so as it takes a while the first time for the network to completely initialize the router and peripherals. If still it doesn’t work, switch off the router or hub and reboot, then reboot computer, followed by the other computer and all other peripherals (if applicable).

Home network is a complicated technical system, thus it requires some kind of of home networking software for easy managing, troubleshooting and repairing of the network.

Computer Networking Education – Career Options

The field of computer networking includes a number of specialized areas for students to study. Students can train for the area that interests them most through an accredited school or college. With an educational program students can earn a variety of degrees including an associates, bachelors, masters, and doctorates level degree. Students can pursue the degree that meets their individual career goals.

Computer Network Engineering

With an accredited educational training program in computer network engineering students can obtain their degree in as little as two years. Careers in this area include network technician, network control analyst, network services administrator, and more. Coursework will vary depending on the level of degree and desired career. Study may consist of subjects like Unix OS, desktop applications, Microsoft Network OS, HTML, network essentials, and much more. Entry level professionals can earn between $26,000 and $53,000 yearly whereas other levels can earn around $70,500 a year.

Network Support

Students can pursue a variety of degrees in network support when looking to enter a career in this field. With a degree in network support students can enter into careers like network support specialist, technical support consultant, network support analyst or supervisor, and many other professions. Curriculum may cover the study of subjects like computers, research, management, leadership, and much more. Degree holders in this specialized area of computer networking can make anywhere from $41,000 a year to $70,000 a year depending on their career.

Computer Network Management

Careers in computer network management can be obtained by earning a degree in the field. Coursework may cover subjects like computer programming, math, computer science, statistics, marketing, and other related courses. With an accredited degree in computer network management students can enter the workforce prepared for an exciting career. Students can find employment working with operating systems, systems management, information security, and much more. With a degree in computer network management students can expect to earn between $54,000 and $90,000 annually.

Network Systems

Students who choose to enroll in a school or college that offers training for network systems can obtain a variety of degrees. With an accredited degree in this area of the field students can look forward to careers as network systems analysts, network systems administrators, network support specialists, network engineers, and other related professions. Coursework may cover topics such as computer science, computer software, Linux networking, web design, PC repair, and more. Training for a degree in this area will allow students to earn between $58,000 and $95,000 a year.

Computer Network Maintenance & Repair – Important Considerations

Computer network maintenance and repair were both services seldom required 15 years ago. Computers were a luxury, barely factoring into most peoples day to day lives.

Today not only do computers act as our primary research tool via search engines, but they also are our main communication tool. It is no longer uncommon to find multiple PCs in a single household. It is not at all strange to see families with several computer units under 1 ceiling. On top of that the business world has come to rely on computers so heavily, imagining a day without them is barely fathomable.

The preponderance of computers has meant that networks now inhabit all over the place. Whether at home or the office, PC’s and computers are tied together (figuratively) to more effortlessly share info.

Naturally this increase in networks has meant the the need for computer network maintenance and/or computer network repair has gone through the roof. Aside from just getting a network, keeping your computer network maintained is equally valuable.

Whether at home or at work, security is a huge issue within networks. Competitors will pay hackers good amounts of money to steal information from you via the internet. Identity theft is also common when hackers make their way into home networks that have not been maintained and steal personal data.

There is also the day to day tasks a computer network maintenance professional must do including adding new users, ensuring proper access and usability among users, installing regular updates and keeping all hardware and software current and efficient.

If and when it falls apart, a computer network repair professional can be a life saver. The damage that would be done if your network malfunctioned permanently is frequently to much for folks to comprehend.

Some small businesses can not afford a full time computer network maintenance service, so here are some general tips to help you avoid needing computer network repair.

-Block unwanted junk from getting to your network with an Internet Gateway Appliance. These reside between the computer in your network and their Internet connection. Although there are a number of advertisements for paid software, there are also less expensive alternatives such as those from Untangle

-Make it a point to determine that your antivirus software is current. If your computer came preloaded with anti-virus software make sure you have the latest version. There are other alternatives including AVAST and AVG which are low cost. You ought really be willing to do anything to avoid needing computer network repair.

– Companies ought not give employees free reign on the Internet. If they do not need it to perform their job then they just do not need it. The use of net blocking software can limit the amount of viruses and general susceptibility of your network to unwanted issues

-Be on guard about opening email when you are not sure who sent it. Never let anyone you do not trust access you files, and do not click on any links you are not 100% sure are legitimate.

-It is smart to consider turning off access to USB ports and CD burners fro your employees if they do not need these components to do their job. Your business data could be taken right out the door by a disgruntled employee with ease.

– Please do not let unattended children mess with your computer at work. You would be astonished to know how numerous computer network repair jobs are the result of unattended children running amok on their parents PC.

– Configure your servers to regular update software and security update as part of regular computer network maintenance. This frequently comes in the form of the latest Microsoft path, need to fill gaps in network security.

-It is amazing how a number of folks do not optimize the setting of their wireless network so they are configured for a secure connection. This means, that within a certain geographically defined area, everyone has access to your files. Proper computer network maintenance regularly tunes these settings.

By following these simple guidelines you can feel comparatively good about your home or business computer network maintenance. However these should only be relied upon if you can not afford a full or part time network maintenance professional. As soon as you can budget for it, you ought get one of these PC network maintenance service providers to handle you network. Computer network repairs cost lots of money and frequently have dire consequences for folks and businesses who must keep their info safe.

Computer Networking Career Preparation Possibilities

Life without computer networking would look much different. Networks provide society with capabilities like sending e-mails and transferring money online. Professionals constantly work to keep networks functional and updated. Students that desire to work with this technology have several training and career options.

Education can be obtained from colleges and universities throughout the country that dedicate programs to this field. At its most basic definition computer networking is when two or more computers share information. The most used network worldwide is the Internet, which consists of thousands of connections. Students can step into career training at any level of education. The major areas of training include:

  • Computer Network Engineering and Management
  • Network Support and Systems

Students learn to maintain function and support in all programs, which prepares them to become specialists. Each specific field provides students with a centralized education. Students will learn how to work with local and wide area networks according to the job tasks that go directly with their particular specialty. By gaining a strong computer background students are able to fix problems associated with networks by creating plans to reduce their effects and improve systems.Students that work through network engineering programs learn to design and protect connections between computers. Theories and technical procedures are highly covered giving students the ability to generate, manage, and troubleshoot connections. A variety of computer related courses explore how to link certain computers to establish virtual private networks and develop routing systems. Internetwork programming, firewall technology, development, and multilayer switching prepare students to obtain entry-level to advanced careers. Becoming network architectures and services administrators are some possible career opportunities.

The work associated with computer administration, design, and security can be learned when students complete programs in network management. Training encompasses various procedural methods to develop, implement, and maintain computer connections. Areas involved in the different processes it takes to manage computer networks often include peripherals and integrated software. Students learn to properly increase productivity and efficiency. Remote access, wireless communication, desktop support, and information technology courses other subjects studied. They provide students with the skills to test and evaluate computer hardware, software, and data. Most students step into careers as specialists.

Network support training programs focus heavily on configuring, creating, installing, managing, and fixing computer systems. The support given to networks, which is often on a daily basis, provides businesses and organizations with confidence that their technologies will function correctly. Courses often include topics on software integration and data security. Students often become support analysts and consultants.

Students that pursue training will learn to build, manage, and manipulate networks to foster communication to other organizations. Education focuses heavily on constructing computer networks. Students can become administrators and computer systems engineers.

Computer Networking Fundamentals

In the past, when two persons were willing to share data between each other, they were relying on movable disks such as floppy disks and CD-ROM. These ways of transmitting data between remote computers are often difficult especially if the files will be transmitted very often.

Because of the above difficulties in transmitting data across movable disks, the idea of networking two or more computer has been arisen. Instead of transmitting the files across movable disks, the computers are connected to each other by cables through ports on the computer. When someone needs to transmit the data to another computer, he simply can share the files he needs to transmit across the network. This way no movable disk is needed and the matter is easier.

When talking about computer networking, one must differentiate between the many types that exist for the network. The computer network can be classified according to the geographical area they occupy or according to the manner they will behave when sharing and accessing data between the computers in the network.

Let us first see how they are classified according to the geographical area. The meaning of this classification is how much the network will occupy or simply what the size of the network is. There are three types for any networks according to this classification. They are the LAN, WAN, and MAN. The LAN (Local Area Network) has the smallest size with respect to the other types. The LAN can occupy a room, a floor, a building such as company, or at most a group of adjacent buildings. The MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) can occupy a whole city or even a while state. On the other hand, the WAN can occupy a whole country, group of countries, or even the whole world.

The second classification is according to the data distribution across the network and how the computers that are connected to each other are treated. There two types of networks according to this classification. The first one is peer to peer network. The meaning of this classification is that all computers in the network are treated as equal. Thus the size of the data on one computer can be equal to the size on another computer. Also the processing and storage power of the all devices are equal. Thus there is no computer on the network that is higher in value than the other computer. Hence the name peer to peer network.

The second type of networks according to the above classification is the client-server network. In this type, the matter is different in that not all computers are equal in value. At the least, there is one computer (that is called the server) that has much processing power and storage power. Therefore the data is stored on that computer to be shared across the network. Every computer that needs some data that is shared across the network can take it from the server only. This is because all computers other than the server have less sizes of memory and also processor power.

Computer Network Overview

Computer networking or data communication is a most important part of the information technology. Today every business in the world needs a computer network for smooth operations, flexibly, instant communication and data access. Just imagine if there is no network communication in the university campuses, hospitals, multinational organizations and educational institutes then how difficult are to communicate with each other. In this article you will learn the basic overview of a computer network. The targeted audience of this article is the people who want to know about the network communication system, network standards and types.

A computer network is comprised of connectivity devices and components. To share data and resources between two or more computers is known as networking. There are different types of a computer network such as LAN, MAN, WAN and wireless network. The key devices involved that make the infrastructure of a computer network are Hub, Switch, Router, Modem, Access point, LAN card and network cables.

LAN stands for local area network and a network in a room, in a building or a network over small distance is known as a LAN. MAN stands for Metropolitan area network and it covers the networking between two offices within the city. WAN stands for wide area network and it cover the networking between two or more computers between two cities, two countries or two continents.

There are different topologies of a computer network. A topology defines the physical layout or a design of a network. These topologies are star topology, bus topology, mesh topology, star bus topology etc. In a star topology each computer in a network is directly connected with a centralized device known as hub or switch. If any computer gets problematic in star topology then it does not affect the other computers in a network.

There are different standards and devices in computer network. The most commonly used standard for a local area network is Ethernet. Key devices in a computer network are hub, switch, router, modem and access point etc. A router is used to connect two logically and physical different networks. All the communication on the internet is based on the router. Hub/Switch is used to connect the computers in local area network.

Hopefully, in this article you may have learnt that what a computer network is, how important it is in our lives, what are different network devices, standards, topologies and communication types.

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