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The Evolution of Technology – The History of Computers

While computers are now an important part of the lives of human beings, there was a time where computers did not exist. Knowing the history of computers and how much progression has been made can help you understand just how complicated and innovative the creation of computers really is.

Unlike most devices, the computer is one of the few inventions that does not have one specific inventor. Throughout the development of the computer, many people have added their creations to the list required to make a computer work. Some of the inventions have been different types of computers, and some of them were parts required to allow computers to be developed further.

The Beginning

Perhaps the most significant date in the history of computers is the year 1936. It was in this year that the first “computer” was developed. It was created by Konrad Zuse and dubbed the Z1 Computer. This computer stands as the first as it was the first system to be fully programmable. There were devices prior to this, but none had the computing power that sets it apart from other electronics.

It wasn’t until 1942 that any business saw profit and opportunity in computers. This first company was called ABC computers, owned and operated by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. Two years later, the Harvard Mark I computer was developed, furthering the science of computing.

Over the course of the next few years, inventors all over the world began to search more into the study of computers, and how to improve upon them. Those next ten years say the introduction of the transistor, which would become a vital part of the inner workings of the computer, the ENIAC 1 computer, as well as many other types of systems. The ENIAC 1 is perhaps one of the most interesting, as it required 20,000 vacuum tubes to operate. It was a massive machine, and started the revolution to build smaller and faster computers.

The age of computers was forever altered by the introduction of International Business Machines, or IBM, into the computing industry in 1953. This company, over the course of computer history, has been a major player in the development of new systems and servers for public and private use. This introduction brought about the first real signs of competition within computing history, which helped to spur faster and better development of computers. Their first contribution was the IBM 701 EDPM Computer.

A Programming Language Evolves

A year later, the first successful high level programming language was created. This was a programming language not written in ‘assembly’ or binary, which are considered very low level languages. FORTRAN was written so that more people could begin to program computers easily.

The year 1955, the Bank of America, coupled with Stanford Research Institute and General Electric, saw the creation of the first computers for use in banks. The MICR, or Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, coupled with the actual computer, the ERMA, was a breakthrough for the banking industry. It wasn’t until 1959 that the pair of systems were put into use in actual banks.

During 1958, one of the most important breakthroughs in computer history occurred, the creation of the integrated circuit. This device, also known as the chip, is one of the base requirements for modern computer systems. On every motherboard and card within a computer system, are many chips that contain information on what the boards and cards do. Without these chips, the systems as we know them today cannot function.

Gaming, Mice, & the Internet

For many computer users now, games are a vital part of the computing experience. 1962 saw the creation of the first computer game, which was created by Steve Russel and MIT, which was dubbed Spacewar.

The mouse, one of the most basic components of modern computers, was created in 1964 by Douglass Engelbart. It obtained its name from the “tail” leading out of the device.

One of the most important aspects of computers today was invented in 1969. ARPA net was the original Internet, which provided the foundation for the Internet that we know today. This development would result in the evolution of knowledge and business across the entire planet.

It wasn’t until 1970 that Intel entered the scene with the first dynamic RAM chip, which resulted in an explosion of computer science innovation.

On the heels of the RAM chip was the first microprocessor, which was also designed by Intel. These two components, in addition to the chip developed in 1958, would number among the core components of modern computers.

A year later, the floppy disk was created, gaining its name from the flexibility of the storage unit. This was the first step in allowing most people to transfer bits of data between unconnected computers.

The first networking card was created in 1973, allowing data transfer between connected computers. This is similar to the Internet, but allows for the computers to connect without use of the Internet.

Household PC’s Emerge

The next three years were very important for computers. This is when companies began to develop systems for the average consumer. The Scelbi, Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, Apple I and II, TRS-80, and the Commodore Pet computers were the forerunners in this area. While expensive, these machines started the trend for computers within common households.

One of the most major breathroughs in computer software occurred in 1978 with the release of the VisiCalc Spreadsheet program. All development costs were paid for within a two week period of time, which makes this one of the most successful programs in computer history.

1979 was perhaps one of the most important years for the home computer user. This is the year that WordStar, the first word processing program, was released to the public for sale. This drastically altered the usefulness of computers for the everyday user.

The IBM Home computer quickly helped revolutionize the consumer market in 1981, as it was affordable for home owners and standard consumers. 1981 also saw the the mega-giant Microsoft enter the scene with the MS-DOS operating system. This operating system utterly changed computing forever, as it was easy enough for everyone to learn.

The Competition Begins : Apple vs. Microsoft

Computers saw yet another vital change during the year of 1983. The Apple Lisa computer was the first with a graphical user interface, or a GUI. Most modern programs contain a GUI, which allows them to be easy to use and pleasing for the eyes. This marked the beginning of the out dating of most text based only programs.

Beyond this point in computer history, many changes and alterations have occurred, from the Apple-Microsoft wars, to the developing of microcomputers and a variety of computer breakthroughs that have become an accepted part of our daily lives. Without the initial first steps of computer history, none of this would have been possible.

Computer Knowledge (Literacy)

Advancement in ICT (Information Communication Technology, has made the world to be viewed as a global village. Regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of communication, transportation, and trade), the Computers playing a major role, in this integration.

This integration of regions or nations of the world through this global network has made the world to be like a big village, where various nations are like clans in this big village, while the Presidents of the various nations are like heads of clans in this big village.

Therefore as it is any thing that affects one clan affects the other in this big village. This is what is actually happening in our world of today. A crisis in the Niger Delta of Nigeria affects the international price of crude oil, travels, etc.

This joining together of countries in the world economically, through education, society and politics, and citizens viewing themselves not only through their national identity but also as part of the world as a whole is what is Globalization.

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by a combination of economic, socio-culture, politics, international trade and investment and aided by ICT (Information Communication Technology), in which the Internet pays a major role, through the network of Computers cut across the globe or world

Globalization, has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.

In our world today, there are few places a person can’t get to via telephone or the Internet. Because of modern modes of communication, citizens of a nation are more conscious of the world at large and may be influenced by other cultures in a variety of ways.

Time and space matter less, and even language barriers are being overcome as people all over the world communicate through trade, social Internet forums, various media sources, and a variety of other ways.

As a result of globalization, the world is viewed as one Big Town or Village called a Global Village. And members of the Global Village are called Global Community. One major medium which has brought people of all nations closer together is the Internet. Internet is the networks of Computers all over the globe, which enable people of the world (Global Community), communicate with each other. Internet is one part of ICT.

ICT has been the major driver of globalization. Advances in Information Technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life. Information Technologies have given all sorts of individual economic actors-consumers, investors, businesses-valuable new tools for identifying and pursuing economic opportunities, including faster and more informed analyses of economic trends around the world, easy transfers of assets, and collaboration with distant partners.

As you are reading this article now, minds are communicating all over the world through the Internet, to achieve their desires. Buying and Selling, School Admission and Registration, Airline Travel Booking, Research of any kind, Banking, Emails, looking for Employment, Information, etc, are all going on through the Internet.

Being Part of the Global Community

From the understanding above, no one in this present world, can succeed if he is she is not a member of the global community. To be a member of the global community, you must:

1. Be Computer Literate

2. Learn how to use the Internet

3. Own a Personal Computer (Desktop or Laptop)

Computer Literacy

Computer literacy is defined as the knowledge and ability to use Computers and technology efficiently. Another valuable component of Computer literacy is knowing how Computers work and operate. This later component is for advanced users or operators who may want to be Computer engineers. Knowing and having the ability to use Computers is mile stone into the global community.

Why Is Computer Literacy Necessary?

There are a lot of things you will need the Computer for directly or indirectly in this present age of ours. Either you use it directly or someone is using it on your behalf. Some reasons why you have to be Computer literate are as listed below:

1. When looking for job, your employers require that you be Computer literate, as Computer could be a basic tool you will have to use.

2. In most places of business, Computer is standard. For example, in the banks Computers are used for banking transactions and to look up customer’s account information. In some auto repair shop Computers are used to assess electronic and other faults in cars.

3. In schools Computers are used for student’s registration and admission, accounting, exams and records. School libraries are database of books. No more use of library cards.

4. In some Hospitals and Clinics patient information are stored in Computers. Doctors must know how to retrieve such information to treat a patient.

5. To send or receive electronic mails you need to learn how to use the Computer and the Internet or you pay someone to do it for you.

This list is endless. It is in your best interests to start learning to use the personal Computer now. It will help you get a job and it will help you advance in your career.

Computer literacy does not mean you need to know how use every single piece of software you may encounter. It does not mean you need to know how to write programs or network Computers. You just need to know some basics:

1. How to Start the Computer

2. How to use the OS (Operating System) running in your Computer, Windows, Mac or Linux.

3. How to open Application Software such as Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint. Create, Save and Open Files.

4. How to Exit or Close an Application Software and open another.

5. How to properly shutdown the Computer after usage.

6. How to use the Internet to Browse the Internet, send and receive email.

7. How to listen to Music and play Video in your Computer.

8. How to handle your PC (Personal Computer).

When you learn how to use the computer, you will have some sort spot for it in your mind, when you come to appreciate how easy it is to use the computer and how useful it is. Then the fear that it is impossible or difficult to learn how to use the computer would have been a thing of the past.

I remember when I was teaching a very good friend of mine how to use the Microsoft Word and the Mouse. It did not come so easy. But because she had made up her mind to learn, it did not take time for her to start using the tools. One day I went to her office to see her, just to find out that the typewriter she so much loved was under the table. Then I ask her how is the mouse doing? And she smiled. Her masters programme was on Computer Networking. This is the joy of learning how to use the PC.

How do you Become Computer Literate?

To become Computer Literate, you have to attend a Computer Training School. There are all over the place. In such schools, Basic Computer courses are offered. They are usually reasonably priced, and you can workout time to learn them. There are free online courses in the Internet, if you don want to attend any school. You can learn from a cyber café, but some body must have to teach you. Some Cyber Café offer computer courses. Two free computer courses online sites are:

Gcflearnfree

At this point in time you don’t have to own a Computer, except you want to practice at home. After finishing your course, you would have made up your mind as to what type of Personal Computer you want (Desktop or Laptop).

Learn How to Use the Internet

To be a member of the global community, you must know how to use the internet. If you can imagine the information you can find virtually from any facet of life in the Internet, you will appreciate what humans are doing to make life and the world an easy place to live in. You must learn and know how to use the Internet to be relevant in this 21st Century. There is no age barrier to becoming a computer literate. Interest is the watch word. It is good to learn from a Computer Training School, how to use the Internet. When you have grabbed the basics, then you can visit these free sites, like this shown below:

Learnthenet

Own a Personal Computer (Desktop or Laptop)

After you have learnt how to use the computer and Internet, it is time to own your computer, if you have not already bought on. Your decision to own a PC depends on what you want to do with it. That will inform your decision to own a desktop or laptop computer. Be part of the global or digital world.

Beginner’s Guide to Computer Forensics

Introduction
Computer forensics is the practice of collecting, analysing and reporting on digital information in a way that is legally admissible. It can be used in the detection and prevention of crime and in any dispute where evidence is stored digitally. Computer forensics has comparable examination stages to other forensic disciplines and faces similar issues.

About this guide
This guide discusses computer forensics from a neutral perspective. It is not linked to particular legislation or intended to promote a particular company or product and is not written in bias of either law enforcement or commercial computer forensics. It is aimed at a non-technical audience and provides a high-level view of computer forensics. This guide uses the term “computer”, but the concepts apply to any device capable of storing digital information. Where methodologies have been mentioned they are provided as examples only and do not constitute recommendations or advice. Copying and publishing the whole or part of this article is licensed solely under the terms of the Creative Commons – Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 license

Uses of computer forensics
There are few areas of crime or dispute where computer forensics cannot be applied. Law enforcement agencies have been among the earliest and heaviest users of computer forensics and consequently have often been at the forefront of developments in the field. Computers may constitute a ‘scene of a crime’, for example with hacking [ 1] or denial of service attacks [2] or they may hold evidence in the form of emails, internet history, documents or other files relevant to crimes such as murder, kidnap, fraud and drug trafficking. It is not just the content of emails, documents and other files which may be of interest to investigators but also the ‘meta-data’ [3] associated with those files. A computer forensic examination may reveal when a document first appeared on a computer, when it was last edited, when it was last saved or printed and which user carried out these actions.

More recently, commercial organisations have used computer forensics to their benefit in a variety of cases such as;

  • Intellectual Property theft
  • Industrial espionage
  • Employment disputes
  • Fraud investigations
  • Forgeries
  • Matrimonial issues
  • Bankruptcy investigations
  • Inappropriate email and internet use in the work place
  • Regulatory compliance

Guidelines
For evidence to be admissible it must be reliable and not prejudicial, meaning that at all stages of this process admissibility should be at the forefront of a computer forensic examiner’s mind. One set of guidelines which has been widely accepted to assist in this is the Association of Chief Police Officers Good Practice Guide for Computer Based Electronic Evidence or ACPO Guide for short. Although the ACPO Guide is aimed at United Kingdom law enforcement its main principles are applicable to all computer forensics in whatever legislature. The four main principles from this guide have been reproduced below (with references to law enforcement removed):

    1. No action should change data held on a computer or storage media which may be subsequently relied upon in court.
    1. In circumstances where a person finds it necessary to access original data held on a computer or storage media, that person must be competent to do so and be able to give evidence explaining the relevance and the implications of their actions.
    1. An audit trail or other record of all processes applied to computer-based electronic evidence should be created and preserved. An independent third-party should be able to examine those processes and achieve the same result.
  1. The person in charge of the investigation has overall responsibility for ensuring that the law and these principles are adhered to.

In summary, no changes should be made to the original, however if access/changes are necessary the examiner must know what they are doing and to record their actions.

Live acquisition
Principle 2 above may raise the question: In what situation would changes to a suspect’s computer by a computer forensic examiner be necessary? Traditionally, the computer forensic examiner would make a copy (or acquire) information from a device which is turned off. A write-blocker[4] would be used to make an exact bit for bit copy [5] of the original storage medium. The examiner would work then from this copy, leaving the original demonstrably unchanged.

However, sometimes it is not possible or desirable to switch a computer off. It may not be possible to switch a computer off if doing so would result in considerable financial or other loss for the owner. It may not be desirable to switch a computer off if doing so would mean that potentially valuable evidence may be lost. In both these circumstances the computer forensic examiner would need to carry out a ‘live acquisition’ which would involve running a small program on the suspect computer in order to copy (or acquire) the data to the examiner’s hard drive.

By running such a program and attaching a destination drive to the suspect computer, the examiner will make changes and/or additions to the state of the computer which were not present before his actions. Such actions would remain admissible as long as the examiner recorded their actions, was aware of their impact and was able to explain their actions.

Stages of an examination
For the purposes of this article the computer forensic examination process has been divided into six stages. Although they are presented in their usual chronological order, it is necessary during an examination to be flexible. For example, during the analysis stage the examiner may find a new lead which would warrant further computers being examined and would mean a return to the evaluation stage.

Readiness 
Forensic readiness is an important and occasionally overlooked stage in the examination process. In commercial computer forensics it can include educating clients about system preparedness; for example, forensic examinations will provide stronger evidence if a server or computer’s built-in auditing and logging systems are all switched on. For examiners there are many areas where prior organisation can help, including training, regular testing and verification of software and equipment, familiarity with legislation, dealing with unexpected issues (e.g., what to do if child pornography is present during a commercial job) and ensuring that your on-site acquisition kit is complete and in working order.

Evaluation 
The evaluation stage includes the receiving of clear instructions, risk analysis and allocation of roles and resources. Risk analysis for law enforcement may include an assessment on the likelihood of physical threat on entering a suspect’s property and how best to deal with it. Commercial organisations also need to be aware of health and safety issues, while their evaluation would also cover reputational and financial risks on accepting a particular project.

Collection 
The main part of the collection stage, acquisition, has been introduced above. If acquisition is to be carried out on-site rather than in a computer forensic laboratory then this stage would include identifying, securing and documenting the scene. Interviews or meetings with personnel who may hold information which could be relevant to the examination (which could include the end users of the computer, and the manager and person responsible for providing computer services) would usually be carried out at this stage. The ‘bagging and tagging’ audit trail would start here by sealing any materials in unique tamper-evident bags. Consideration also needs to be given to securely and safely transporting the material to the examiner’s laboratory.

Analysis 
Analysis depends on the specifics of each job. The examiner usually provides feedback to the client during analysis and from this dialogue the analysis may take a different path or be narrowed to specific areas. Analysis must be accurate, thorough, impartial, recorded, repeatable and completed within the time-scales available and resources allocated. There are myriad tools available for computer forensics analysis. It is our opinion that the examiner should use any tool they feel comfortable with as long as they can justify their choice. The main requirements of a computer forensic tool is that it does what it is meant to do and the only way for examiners to be sure of this is for them to regularly test and calibrate the tools they use before analysis takes place. Dual-tool verification can confirm result integrity during analysis (if with tool ‘A’ the examiner finds artefact ‘X’ at location ‘Y’, then tool ‘B’ should replicate these results.)

Presentation 
This stage usually involves the examiner producing a structured report on their findings, addressing the points in the initial instructions along with any subsequent instructions. It would also cover any other information which the examiner deems relevant to the investigation. The report must be written with the end reader in mind; in many cases the reader of the report will be non-technical, so the terminology should acknowledge this. The examiner should also be prepared to participate in meetings or telephone conferences to discuss and elaborate on the report.

Review 
Along with the readiness stage, the review stage is often overlooked or disregarded. This may be due to the perceived costs of doing work that is not billable, or the need ‘to get on with the next job’. However, a review stage incorporated into each examination can help save money and raise the level of quality by making future examinations more efficient and time effective. A review of an examination can be simple, quick and can begin during any of the above stages. It may include a basic ‘what went wrong and how can this be improved’ and a ‘what went well and how can it be incorporated into future examinations’. Feedback from the instructing party should also be sought. Any lessons learnt from this stage should be applied to the next examination and fed into the readiness stage.

Issues facing computer forensics
The issues facing computer forensics examiners can be broken down into three broad categories: technical, legal and administrative.

Encryption – Encrypted files or hard drives can be impossible for investigators to view without the correct key or password. Examiners should consider that the key or password may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. It could also reside in the volatile memory of a computer (known as RAM [6] which is usually lost on computer shut-down; another reason to consider using live acquisition techniques as outlined above.

Increasing storage space – Storage media holds ever greater amounts of data which for the examiner means that their analysis computers need to have sufficient processing power and available storage to efficiently deal with searching and analysing enormous amounts of data.

New technologies – Computing is an ever-changing area, with new hardware, software and operating systems being constantly produced. No single computer forensic examiner can be an expert on all areas, though they may frequently be expected to analyse something which they haven’t dealt with before. In order to deal with this situation, the examiner should be prepared and able to test and experiment with the behaviour of new technologies. Networking and sharing knowledge with other computer forensic examiners is also very useful in this respect as it’s likely someone else may have already encountered the same issue.

Anti-forensics – Anti-forensics is the practice of attempting to thwart computer forensic analysis. This may include encryption, the over-writing of data to make it unrecoverable, the modification of files’ meta-data and file obfuscation (disguising files). As with encryption above, the evidence that such methods have been used may be stored elsewhere on the computer or on another computer which the suspect has had access to. In our experience, it is very rare to see anti-forensics tools used correctly and frequently enough to totally obscure either their presence or the presence of the evidence they were used to hide.

Legal issues 
Legal arguments may confuse or distract from a computer examiner’s findings. An example here would be the ‘Trojan Defence’. A Trojan is a piece of computer code disguised as something benign but which has a hidden and malicious purpose. Trojans have many uses, and include key-logging [7], uploading and downloading of files and installation of viruses. A lawyer may be able to argue that actions on a computer were not carried out by a user but were automated by a Trojan without the user’s knowledge; such a Trojan Defence has been successfully used even when no trace of a Trojan or other malicious code was found on the suspect’s computer. In such cases, a competent opposing lawyer, supplied with evidence from a competent computer forensic analyst, should be able to dismiss such an argument.

Accepted standards – There are a plethora of standards and guidelines in computer forensics, few of which appear to be universally accepted. This is due to a number of reasons including standard-setting bodies being tied to particular legislations, standards being aimed either at law enforcement or commercial forensics but not at both, the authors of such standards not being accepted by their peers, or high joining fees dissuading practitioners from participating.

Fitness to practice – In many jurisdictions there is no qualifying body to check the competence and integrity of computer forensics professionals. In such cases anyone may present themselves as a computer forensic expert, which may result in computer forensic examinations of questionable quality and a negative view of the profession as a whole.

Resources and further reading
There does not appear to be a great amount of material covering computer forensics which is aimed at a non-technical readership. However the following links at links at the bottom of this page may prove to be of interest prove to be of interest:

Glossary
1. Hacking: modifying a computer in way which was not originally intended in order to benefit the hacker’s goals.
2. Denial of Service attack: an attempt to prevent legitimate users of a computer system from having access to that system’s information or services.
3. Meta-data: at a basic level meta-data is data about data. It can be embedded within files or stored externally in a separate file and may contain information about the file’s author, format, creation date and so on.
4. Write blocker: a hardware device or software application which prevents any data from being modified or added to the storage medium being examined.
5. Bit copy: bit is a contraction of the term ‘binary digit’ and is the fundamental unit of computing. A bit copy refers to a sequential copy of every bit on a storage medium, which includes areas of the medium ‘invisible’ to the user.
6. RAM: Random Access Memory. RAM is a computer’s temporary workspace and is volatile, which means its contents are lost when the computer is powered off.
7. Key-logging: the recording of keyboard input giving the ability to read a user’s typed passwords, emails and other confidential information.

Choosing the Best Desktop Computer For You

Like a lot of people in the world today, you probably have a specific budget in mind when you buy a desktop computer. You may wonder, though, how to pick out the computer. What size and shape you need and with all the new technology out there, you may be unsure what to get. We are here to help you with this most difficult decision. Read on for some great insight into what to look for when purchasing a great desktop computer.

There are four different types of a PC user. Read below to find out which one you are. This will help you choose the best computer for you and your family.

General purpose user: a general purpose use desktop computer is perfect for those who like to make pictures, edit pictures, play games and surf the net. Depending on what you need a general purpose computer can range in price from $500 to $1500.

Power User: a power user computer is a computer that can be used to make and edit movies and videos. These types of computers also allow you to make digital designs and play mega games. With these computers you will typically need 2 or more hard drives and a great graphics card. These computers typically run higher in price due to the power behind the computer and the different running systems that it will include. A power user computer can range in price from $2500 to $3500 depending on what you will need to perform the types of work that you want to do on this computer.

Home Theater Enthusiast: Do you love movies and television? Why not get a computer that can handle all of your home theater needs? This type of computer is great for people who love to watch movies and television. Windows Media Center is on all of the windows programs including the new Windows 7. When considering this type of computer always keep in mind what type of media you will be playing. This will help you to decide the video card and how much memory and output you will need. You can also find surround sound for your home theater computer, which will make your home theater even more special. When purchasing this computer make sure that is has the proper DVD drive or if you desire you can get a computer with a blue ray player allowing you the maximum high definition display. This type computer can range in price from $500 to $1500 depending on what you need included with the great entertainment model computer.

Home Office Worker: this is a great computer for those who work from home. With this type of computer you do not need the massive graphics power as other computers unless you design graphics for your home office work and then you would want a computer with a higher graphics count. You will want a system with a dual power core so that you can multitask and get the work done that you need done. Windows has a great operating system in Windows 7 that is great for being able to multitask. The newest feature on Windows 7 allows you to have different windows open at one time and you are also allowed to have them up side by side. This will save you time and you will not have to worry about your computer crashing. Mac also has a great operating system for home office as well. A home computer can run in price from $500 to $2,000 depending on what you need and how you plan on using it.

There are many different features to consider when wanting to purchase any of the before mentioned computers. The main great features that you will want to consider are:

* Processor: The two most common type of processor is AMD Athlon 64 X2, or Intel Core 2 Duo processor. You will want a Duo processor if you will be doing a lot of work or something that calls for a high speed processor such as burning or making videos and DVD’s. A processor is at the most basic form the brains of your computer. The faster your processor is the better performance you will receive out of your computer.

* Memory: The memory in a desktop computer can vary due to the upcoming technology. Depending on what you need you can find a desktop that has 1G to 4G’s of memory. Memory is changing due to different technology every day. When considering the memory take into consideration what you will be using your computer for. The more pictures and videos you need to make will increase the gigabyte count. Having the maximum amount of memory allows you to have plenty of room for all those important things that you want to install on your computer.

* Hard Drive: Depending on what you will need to store on your computer, you can find the perfect hard drive. A hard drive for this type of desktop can range from 250 G to 500 G. When choosing the hard drive, keep in mind what kind of programs you want to install. If you are wanting to install games or photo editing software, it would be best to have a higher gigabyte count. This allows you to have plenty of space for these programs as well as other programs including music and videos.

* Running system: When choosing your computer you will want to pick out a operating system that will work great for you. You can choose Windows or Mac. Both are very reliable brands and will give you a great computer experience. The latest version of Windows is Windows 7 and the latest version of Mac is the Apple OS X Leopard. The feedback on both of these programs are great. You can also ask friends and family that have these running systems how they feel about them and this will help you to pick out the perfect running system for you.

* Video Card: the video card helps to control different graphics and video. The most typical video card is 128 mb and comes from NVIDIA and ATI. With ever changing technology the video card will increase in megabyte size and quality. Most computers come with this feature already installed for quality graphics.

* Keyboard: Your computer would be basically useless without a keyboard. There are several different choices of keyboard. If you have trouble with your wrists, you can find a keyboard that is ergonomic and has a wrist wrest built into the keyboard. If you do not want the headache of wires all over the place, you can purchase a wireless keyboard. A wireless keyboard gives you access to your computer without the clutter of wire.

* Mouse: The mouse is a key component in the running of your desktop computer. The mouse helps you click on links and scroll down throughout pages. A wireless mouse is the latest invention. You can move your mouse around without the constraint of wire. This is a great way to perform your task. A computer can function without a mouse but it would be very difficult to use.

* Monitor: The monitor is the most important part of the computer besides the hard drive. The monitor allows you to see images and what is on your computer. You can find average size monitors, wide screened monitors and flat screened monitors. You can even find HD monitors that deliver a even clearer pictures. The size of the monitor depends on what size you need for what you will be doing with your desktop computer. With larger screens you will have the ability to watch many different movies in television size.

* Web Camera: a web camera can be hooked up to your computer allowing you to take images and videos and save them directly to your computer. You can also video chat with people online using it with Yahoo, Skype or even Facebook. It is a great way to stay in contact with friends and family. When considering a web cam purchase, check and see what pixels that it has. The higher the pixel, the greater the image will be and less pixilated.

* Size: Desktop computers have changed in size drastically over the years and each year it seems like a smaller more compact model is being released. That is great for those of you that do not have a lot of space to store a large computer. You can find a desktop in the size you need including compact. Every year smaller and more compact computers are being released. When looking for the size, take into consideration, where you will set up your computer and how much room you will have. It would not hurt to take measurements and have these with you when you purchase your computer.

* DVD/Blue Ray: If you like to watch movies you can purchase a desktop computer that has a DVD player. This is a great way to watch your movies. When purchasing the computer make sure you check and see what regions that the DVD player can handle. This way you can enjoy movies from many different regions from around the world. Region 1 is the United States and Region 2 is the United Kingdom. So if you want a movie from across the pond you can purchase it and watch it with your desktop. If you desire high quality and high definition you can purchase a computer that is equipped with a blue ray player. This is great for watching high definition movies.

* Warranty: When purchasing a computer, you may consider purchasing an extended warranty. This will give you ease of mind in case of something happening to your computer. Always remember to register for your warranty and it will make you and your computer feel safer.

Have this guide with you when you go to purchase your new desktop. This guide will help you make a choice on what you need for your new desktop computer. Remember take into consideration all of these features and what you will be using the computer for.

Scope of Online Degrees in Computer Sciences

Computer Science is very broad field based on the studies of hardware and software design. Computer science covers different areas of designing, installation and maintenance of complex systems. Major subjects of the computer sciences include computer systems, maintenance of communication network and development of core digital technologies. Areas of specialties include artificial intelligence, computer vision and machine behavior. Basic aim of computer science studies is to investigate algorithms and use of computer systems to solve problems of business and government. Computer science professionals create and maintain most effective computer systems with latest technology. Computer science is one of the rapidly growing industries at present. Many universities offer associate, bachelor, masters and doctorate degrees in computer Sciences.

Major Areas of Specialization

In combination to general subjects universities offers specialization in different areas of computer sciences. These areas include software development, language development and modification, system development, algorithms, hardware maintenance, database systems, numerical analysis and information management.

Skills Earned

Online degrees in computer sciences develop number of specific skills in the students. Some important skills include the following:

o You will be able to create and apply new technology.
o Software design and analysis
o Identification of problems and solution
o Complete multitask with in defined time frame
o You will learn to work independently as well as in teams.
o Also learn how to identify errors and rectify these errors
o You will able to select the correct programming language and hardware systems to complete assigned project.
o You will effectively use operating systems, text editors and compilers in documenting of programs.

Online Degrees Available in Computer Sciences

In addition to degrees offered by traditional universities different top accredited online universities and colleges also offer online degrees in computer sciences. These degrees include Online Associate Degree in Computer Science, Online Bachelor Degree in Computer Science, Online Master Degree in Computer Science and Online PhD Degree in Computer Science. Online education has now become a good option for many people who are not able to join traditional institutes due to some personal and financial reasons. Online Education is also beneficial for working professionals who wants to gain progress in their fields and want to upgrade careers with latest knowledge. Online degrees prove more beneficial if you also join any internship program. You can join different careers after earning online degrees in computer sciences. You can join number of different careers in the field of computer science such as software designing, computer and software sales, programming, computer system development, networking manager, computer hardware professional, computer game development, graphics designer and system manager. These are some examples of opportunities available for computer science degree holders.

Career Path for Online Degrees in Computer Sciences

Computer science consists of theoretical programming and advanced computing solutions. Computer scientists can work in three different areas.

o Computer Scientist design and build software
o Also design useful methods to solve computing problems such as storage of data in databases, transmit data over networks and new methodologies to solve security problems.
o Formulation of new and improved approaches to use

Design and Application of Software

Computer science professionals design software for various purposes including web development, interface design, security issues and mobile computing. Majority of computer science graduates join this career path. Bachelors in computer science provides gateway to enter this field of software designing and its application. Graduates can also continue their education and gain masters degree in computer sciences. You can find jobs in large or small software houses, companies providing computer services and every kind of large organization such as industry, government, banking, healthcare etc.

Develop New Ways to Use Computers

Instead of designing software computer professionals also find new ways to modernize the use of computers. This can achieve by making advancement in computer technology. Computer graduates who are involved in advance graduate work in research university, industrial research and laboratory invent new and improved ways to use computers. The basic aim of such innovations is to simplify the use of computers and computer users can enjoy using computers with new and improved devices and methods. These devices include robotics, computer vision and digital forensics. Dot-com language is the example of such progress in computer sciences.

Discover Effective Ways to Solve Computing Problems

Computing problems can be solved by developing and applying computer science theories and algorithms. Computer science professionals make use of these two i.e. theories and algorithms to discover best possible solution of severe computing problem. To join this field as career students are required to have graduate degree to Ph.D. level with current working experience in a research university, industrial research and development laboratory.

The basic aim of computer science is to explore algorithms, design efficiency and application of computer systems to solve the problem of businesses and government organizations. Computer professionals maintain and formulate effective ways with latest technology. Computer science is rapidly growing industry. You will have lot of opportunities to work as computer professional. Number of computer users is increasing day by day and that’s why development and maintenance of computer system has become important issue. More and more trained professionals are required to fulfill the needs of industry.

How to Keep Your Computer Cool

When your computer is on, nearly all of its components become hot. Constant exposure to high temperature can cause serious damage to your computer.

Here is a list of ways in keeping your PC cool.

Check if your fans are running.

This is the first step when you find your computer overheating. Open the case, and then check if all fans are still working. If at least one is not working anymore, consider doing repairs or getting a replacement.

Regularly clean your computer.

It is essential to regularly clean your computer, especially the cooling fans. The fans attached inside the computer case is used for active cooling of the computer. Over time, dust and dirt can accumulate in these fans. The accumulate dirt can slow down or, in worse, stop fans from working. If fans fail in expelling the hot air fast enough, some internal parts will eventually overheat.

To clean your cooling fan:

1. Shut down your PC.

2. Open the computer case.

3. If there is excessive dirt inside the computer case, take out the computer fan.

4. You can use compressed air, small electronic vacuum or duster, or damp cloth in cleaning the fan.

5. If you use moisten cloth, make sure that the cooling fan is dry or there is no remaining moisture before connecting it again.

Clean other computer parts as well such as the monitor, mouse, and keyboard.

Before cleaning any hardware component, make sure that your machine is turned off. Otherwise, your computer is susceptible to electrostatic discharge that can damage its parts and you are also prone to grounding yourself.

Before applying any cleaning procedures to hardware, make sure to check its manufacturer’s manual if they have provided you with the recommended instructions in cleaning or maintaining it.

Do not spray or spill any liquid directly in computer parts.

Do not limit the air flow around your computer.

Place your computer in a room that can provide sufficient air flow. Make sure that it is not sitting right next into other objects that prevent air circulation, like walls or other computers. There should be at least two to three inches of space on both sides. Since most of the hot air comes out from the air vent at the back end of the computer case, this part should be completely clear and open.

Move your computer to a cooler and cleaner environment.

Move your PC in a place with proper ventilation. It is important that the physical location will not contribute further heat to the computer. Make sure that your PC is not placed near a furnace, refrigerator, cooking appliances, and other things that can blow hot air or can transfer heat into your computer system.

To prevent your PC from overheating, it is advised to place it in an air-conditioned room.

Note: be careful when moving your computer in order to avoid damage on sensitive components inside it like the CPU, graphics card, hard drive, and motherboard.

Use your computer with case closed.

It seems logical to let the case open while the computer is running to keep it cooler. This is true. However, dirt and dust will accumulate and clog the computer fans faster when the case is opened. This can cause the fans to slow down or fail at cooling your computer.

Upgrade your CPU fan.

The CPU is the most important component inside the computer. When you are running demanding applications, the CPU and graphics card induce more heat. It can get so hot that it can be cooked.

Consider purchasing a high-quality and larger CPU fan that can keep the CPU temperature lower than the pre-built CPU fan in your computer could.

Consider installing a component-specific fan.

If you have observed that the other components are overheating, install a component-specific fan to cool them down.

Consider installing a case fan.

This small fan can be attached to either the front or back of the computer case. There are two types of case fan: one that can draw cooler air into the case, and one that can expel warm air from the case. Installing both is a great way to cool your computer.

Turn off your computer when not in use.

A computer continues to produce heat as long as it running, even if you aren’t using it. If you will only have a few minutes of inactivity, at least set your computer to hibernation. Basically, it will also turn off your computer but the opened files and programs are stored in your hard disk.

Also, unplug external hardware of no longer use like printers and scanners.

Overheating can destroy and shorten the lifespan of components inside your computer. The major upside of keeping your computer cool is that it can help you avoid expensive repairs or unnecessary upgrades.

What Is Computer Speed Memory?

Increase Computer Speed Memory by Increasing the Ram (Memory)

Did you know that if you increase the memory on your computer, you can increase the speed? When you try to open a program on your computer, it needs to load itself from the hard drive into the memory. If the memory resources are low because there are too many programs open at the same time, or you have too many programs on your computer, this all takes memory to make things happen. The result will be a computer that runs very slow.

Nobody likes working with a computer that is slow. To have a computer that performs with speed, making the action process happen in 2-5 seconds, it is important to have ample RAM (memory) installed on your computer for computer speed memory. Many of the older computers might have 1 Gigabyte of memory if they are lucky, usually less. This is way too low by today’s standards. You should have a minimum of 5-6 Gigabytes of RAM and preferably 8-10 Gigabytes if you can afford it.

Each action performed, every program installed, takes up and uses computer memory. Don’t overload your computer. You can combat that by increasing the memory (RAM). Freeware contributes to a slow computer because it quite often comes bundled with other freeware that is installed on your computer. Many of those programs are just using up memory and are never used.

Tips for Computer Speed Memory Performance

There are several tips you should be aware of for computer speed memory to keep your computer running at maximum speed. Having the proper security programs on your computer is a must. If you try to shortchange yourself and your computer by not installing these mandatory programs just to save some money, you will ultimately pay the price down the road.

Security programs guard your computer against viruses such as worms, Trojan horses, adware, spyware, malware and other damaging viruses (just to name a few), to your PC. Use the best antivirus software, and keep it updated by version and daily updates. There is a constant new supply of viruses that attack your computer on a daily basis. Keeping all your programs updated, especially your security programs, should keep your computer protected.

When checking for the best antivirus programs, be sure and check all the problem areas listed on the landing page of the product, what the product protects, customer testimonials, product reviews, customer service, and a 30 day trial period with a full money back guarantee.

Ways to Speedup Computer Speed Memory

Run disk defragmentation.

Run disk cleanup.

Go to start all programs, click on accessories, system tools, and select disk defragmentation, and then run disk cleanup.

Uninstall programs that are no longer being used.

Click on start, control panel, uninstall programs, select and highlight program you want uninstalled, click on uninstall, when program is completely uninstalled, close out of the control panel and restart your computer to complete the uninstall.

Summary for Computer Speed Memory

Make sure you have plenty of RAM (Memory), preferable a minimum of 5-6 Gigabytes. If you can afford 8-10 Gigabytes this would be even better.

Using a good registry cleaner is the key to good performance

Use only the best antivirus software

To keep your computer safe, use good adware and spyware software programs

Also use a good Malware Program

Normally there is no – one program – that will deliver all the goods to keep your computer safe.

Keep your computer programs, driver devices, and all software updated at all times and make sure your computer is set for automatic updates from Windows Update.

Uninstall all the programs you no longer need or use on your computer.

a Word to the Wise

Always make sure you have a full backup of your computer and all your programs!

Should I Fix My Computer or Buy a New One?

Unless you are a recent entrant to the world of computers, this is probably a question you’ve asked yourself before. After all, if your computer doesn’t work properly, you may have a strong instinct to throw it out and go get another one but keep wondering if it is worth fixing. This article is intended to help you decide which of these paths you should take to get a PC up and running so you can go about your work or play.

You may be thinking that since this is a computer repair technician writing this article, I’m going to tell you that in almost every case, you should fix your computer rather than get a new one. Not so. Just as there are a host of reasons to fix your computer, there are plenty of reasons to buy a new one instead.

Although the costs of consumer computers are nowhere near the costs of new cars, those of you who have had to decide whether to fix an older automobile or buy a new one may find it helpful to think about that process because it is similar. I would advise you to make two columns and write the reason to buy or fix in the appropriate column.

If you think it through this way, you will find yourself coming to a reasoned and reasonable conclusion. Also remember that if another person has your same PC model and the same problem, what he or she decides does not make their decision good for you. Keep in mind that there is not a right or wrong answer, only the best answer for you. While this article and others can help your decision process, the best answer for you is something only you can decide. Be wary of people who are certain that they know what you need.

Let’s look at some reasons to repair your current computer:

• Budget – Although the extra expense can be worth it, buying a new PC is USUALLY more expensive than fixing your current computer. If you are on a tight budget or are just a frugal person, fixing most problems may be best for you.

• Data – This second reason is related to the budget item. Whichever route you decide to take, you can (usually) keep your pictures, documents, music, emails, business files, and important personal information. It is easier, though, if you are keeping your computer because if you get a new PC, you will have to pay someone to transfer that information to a new PC. Many of you can do this without problem but not everyone can. Also, if your PC won’t boot to Windows and the data has to be extracted from the computer, most of you will need someone to get the data off the hard disk, which means you will be paying both for a new computer plus a service fee to a computer technician.

• Applications – If you get a new computer, you will also have to reinstall all of your applications. Some can be downloaded, like iTunes or Adobe Acrobat Reader. Any that you paid for, such as Microsoft Office, however, will likely be on CD/DVD. They must be installed from this media, along with the product key that came with them. My experience has been that both organized and unorganized people have a tendency to lose application CDs, particularly if they have had their computer for several years. Before buying a new computer, gather all your application installation CDs and make sure you have a disc for all the applications you use. You may be able to avoid this process and have all your applications as they were if you get your computer fixed. However, it should be noted that if the proposed fix to your current PC is to reinstall Windows, this issue is moot because all of your applications will have to be installed on a new Windows installation, just as on a new PC.

• Upgrades – If your computer is just a little slow or can’t do a certain thing, you can usually upgrade the RAM or video card, or the aforementioned USB 3.0 card much more cheaply than you can buy a new PC.

• Windows 8 – Have you used or seen Windows 8 or 8.1? If you get a new computer, it will have Windows 8.1 on it. This is important because for all its pros and cons (and I don’t wish to engage those questions here) many, many people find it hard to use and a significant departure from the interface of Windows 7 and earlier versions. Like anything else, you would probably get used to it, no matter how much you dislike it, but if it isn’t intuitive to you, why buy a machine that comes with it? Windows 7 can be put on new computers after purchase by computer technicians if you buy a copy online. But again, you would be paying more-this time for a new computer, plus a legitimate copy of Windows 7, plus the cost of a service technician to install Windows 7 on the computer.

• “Right Fit” – Buying something new is usually seen as “sexier” than keeping or repairing something used. So, if none of the reasons above grab you, think of this. If you were happy with your computer before it needed to be fixed-happy with its speed, memory, accessories, capabilities and performance, it is likely that that computer is the “Right Fit” for you. Why get another computer when you can probably spend less and get to keep something that fits you?

Now, let’s take a look at some of the reasons to replace your broken computer rather than fix it:

• Age – Although there is no specific age at which retirement and replacement kicks in, most people know it when they see it. If your computer was slow even when in tip top shape, that’s probably a clue you need to go to the computer store.

• Antiquated Accessories – If your PC has a factory-installed floppy disk drive or has a CD but no DVD drive, it is probably time to think about a new PC. Many people want fast peripherals through a USB 3.0 port. If you have a desktop, you can easily get a card installed, so I wouldn’t consider this alone a reason to trash the old PC, but if you’re keeping score, I would mark it in the buy column.

• Major Hardware Damage-If you spilled a Coke or such in the computer, ruining its motherboard, I would not invest in a repair.

• The Laugh Factor – Although I have never laughed at my customers, I have, on occasion, laughed at a machine that is brought in. Why? Because it is so old, so full of dust and cigarette smoke, so slow, that it is almost a joke that someone is actually paying me to fix this computer. If this is your computer, there’s nothing to be embarrassed about but if you don’t already know, deep down, that you need a new computer then take that message from this article. If you decide not to fix it or you just keep your computers for a long time, make sure they inside is cleaned our regularly, whether you do it yourself or bring it in for a cleaning. That dust and smoke residue doesn’t just look bad, it can overheat your computer and cause its death

How To Wisely Buy A New Computer

We are now into 2012, and your old computer just quit. Do you fix it or buy a new computer? If the computer is 5 years old or older, then probably buying a new computer is the better strategy. Many computers manufactured 5 to 9 years ago have hardware components that fail mandating replacement of the computer. Please read on to understand how to buy the best computer for your needs.

The first decisions to make in buying a new computer are very basic. By answering these questions you determine your basic purchase strategy:

1. Please ask yourself “How much can I spend?” The computer prices range from $200 to $400, $450 to $800, and $900 and up.

2. Next determine the computer type (or style) that works best for you. The types of computers are desktop, laptop, and tablet. These types of computers differ in their size, portability, and functionality. Desktop computers are the least portable. They are good for using multiple displays and heavy workloads. Laptops vary in size and portability. The big ones have 17-inch display making them luggable for occasional trips. Big laptops have most of the capabilities of a desktop but the computing horsepower is lower than a desktop in order to conserve laptop battery power. Similarly, the display is smaller with lower resolution than displays used with desktop computers. Tablet computers are the most portable. They can do a lot, but with a much smaller display. The tablets are a powerful, portable information tool that is one step above a smartphone.

3. Finally, the timeless question is: Do I buy an Apple or another computer? The other computer main selections are Windows 7 operating system or Android operating system computers. There are also Linux computers. Linux is free General Public License software operating system. Linux computers are equivalent for everyday users to Windows and Apple computers. The single difference between Linux and Windows is that with a Linux computer you only pay for the computer hardware which is a huge savings over Apple and Windows computers.

The market for Apple computers is tightly controlled. This means that Apple computers work very well with few problems. They are seldom attacked by malicious software. Everything an enthusiastic Apple owner says about their Apple is true. They are also beautiful looking computers. The down side is that they are expensive. When an Apple does malfunction, you have a big problem. If the Apple computer is under warranty, then you schedule a visit to the Apple store and wait in line to get it fixed. Also, you pay a lot for the repair.

In contrast Windows 7 computers are like the Wild West. In the Wild West anything can and does happen. There are many competing hardware and software products for Windows 7 computers. Windows 7 computers are the most malware, spyware, and virus attacked computers. Because there are more Windows computers sold than any other computers, Windows computers are the biggest target to attack. Apple computers also get viruses, but much less often than Windows computers. Windows computers can be cheap computers but they are not cheaper than Linux computers.

4. The final question is: What computer manufacturer do you like? Each manufacturer has its approach to selling computers. My preference is manufacturers that do not add fancy frills beyond the basics that come with Windows or the computer operating system. Most of the frills try to sell you something, provide functions that a redundant with the operating system, they occupy screen space getting in the way of what you are doing, and they overload and slow down the computer. For example, HP computers are like Big MACs, they taste great but come with a lot of software fat. Lenovo computers are like a bank vault. They secure your data but are miserable to fix because of the security. It seems that all computers come with an annoying “dock” or application launcher. It takes up a lot of screen space and really adds little beyond what Windows itself provides. It is always cheaper to purchase a package than to build a custom computer. Purchasing custom computer parts is always more expensive than buying a packaged system from a manufacturer because the manufacturers purchase computer components in such high volume.

Once your basic strategy is determined, then it is time to find a computer. The approach here is to use the Internet to perform the initial shopping and then go to the store to make the final decision and purchase. Please go to the web site of a computer retailer near you such as Best Buy or Staples. Search their site based on the type (or style) of computer that works best for you. The site should produce a list of computers from which to choose. Sort them by “Best Selling” and check the “Customer Reviews”. Please determine how the price compares to your budget. Most retail store sites permit comparing the features of three computers side by side. Carefully select three computers for comparison.

This approach was used to compare from one retailer three desktop computers moderately priced. They ranged from $429.99 to $699.99. The $429.99 computer used a 3.3 GHz Intel i3 CPU chip, had 6 GB RAM, and a 1 TB disk drive. The 549.99 computer used an AMD 2.4 GHz CPU chip, had 8 GB RAM, and had a slower 5,400 rpm 1.5 TB drive. The $699.99 computer used an Intel 3.0GHz i5 CPU chip, had 6 GB RAM and a 7,200 rpm 1 TB drive. The differences between these systems are not likely to make the most expensive system perform that noticeably better to a user than the least expensive system. As long as the hardware features are generally in the same range the performance seems to be the same for each computer.

All systems used the latest DDR3 RAM. The computer with 8 GB of RAM may perform better than those computers with 6 GB of RAM. One thing is certain; all these computers would be decidedly faster than a Windows XP system with 2 GB of RAM. While special performance test programs can measure the performance difference between a 2.4 GHz AMD CPU chip computer and a 3.3 GHz Intel i5 CPU chip computer, people barely notice the difference. What people do notice is that AMD chip computers usually are cheaper by $100 or more than Intel CPU chip computers.

The Windows Performance Index is a measure of the combined performance of all the components of a Windows Vista or a Windows 7 computer. The Windows Performance Index is a single number that varies between 1 and 7.9. Low end systems have Windows Performance Index numbers in the 3.4 to 4.5 range. A computer with a 3.4 score perform the same as a computer with a 4.5 score to a human. To see a performance difference the Windows Performance Index would need to go from a 4.5 to a 7.5.

The Windows Performance Index is not mentioned in any advertising to my knowledge. It is found on Windows 7 computers by opening START, clicking the right mouse button on the COMPUTER menu selection and then selecting PROPERTIES from the drop down menu that appears. To see Windows Performance Index you would need to have a store sales person fire up the computer and help you view it.

Apple computers usually have hardware operates at slower speeds and has smaller capacities than Windows computers. The Apple computers perform as well as or better than their Windows competitors because they use a different and tightly controlled operating system. The software interaction with the hardware makes up for the slower Apple hardware.

The final comparison area is in the display. Monitors today use Light Emitting Diode (LED) backlighting. The LEDs use little power and should last seemingly forever. Monitor physical size contributes to visibility. A character on a 14-inch monitor is smaller than the same character on a 24-inch monitor. The bigger monitor images are more easily viewed. Monitors resolution is expressed in horizontal by vertical dots or pixels. Typically they are something like 1600 by 900 dots. Monitors with a larger number of dots of vertical resolution have a better display. Often monitors will be advertised as 1080p. The 1080p resolution is 1080 dots of vertical resolution with each line refreshed on each scan cycle. On a 1600 by 1200 monitor you can see a full 8.5 by 11 inch page when it is viewed at full size or 100% zoom. Monitors with 900 dots vertical resolution often cut off the bottom of the page when it is viewed at full size.

The final bit of wisdom to consider in purchasing a new computer is not to purchase the most expensive computer. Here is why. A client asked me to get him a computer. At the Dell web site I configured a computer with what seemed to be modest features. This computer cost $3,000. At Costco they offered a computer package that had somewhat lower performance features for under $1,000. If the client purchased a new $1,000 computer every year for three years, at the end of three years he would have better computer than if he purchased the $3,000 Dell computer. Only purchase the most expensive computer if you must absolutely have the features and performance it provides. Otherwise stay with more moderately priced computers and purchase them more often. Buying two $400 computers is better than going for a single $800 computer in the long run.

There is not the “best computer” to buy. But using the strategy presented here anyone can find a great computer for themselves.

 

Are We Too Dependent on Computers?

A computer has been one of mankind’s greatest invention among other inventions ever since the foundation of science began. Its development was a result of years and years of long experiments spanning a hundred or so years conducted not just by one man, but many. Development of computers as it is today is a continuous process and it will ever be. Computers, however simple they may seem now to the computer literate, has a complex set of system underneath. It takes multiple disciplines in both computer studies and electronics to fully understand them. After all, computer in itself is subdivided into branches as is science itself.

While other technological inventions may have had already been developed prior to the foundation of science, “technology” is not yet a proper term for such. The word technology, after all, is always correlated with science and both science and technology are mutually inclusive to one another, strictly speaking in terminologies. Computers of today, however advanced they may seem, have had its origins in humble beginnings.

How did computer began?

Abacus, the earliest form of calculator, has been recorded to be in use since the early civilizations estimated to be around 1000 and 500 B.C., only to be adopted elsewhere in the world. The idea on how the algorithm of a computer does its arithmetic was based on this, in logic. Soon after, for as early as 1820’s, in the personification of Charles Babbage, dubbed to be one of the fathers of modern computer, developed ideas on how computers should do its math, initially known as the difference engine, it developed later after to become what is known as the analytical engine. While Charles Babbage, due to funding issues, didn’t get to see his ideas into fruition during his lifetime, it is his youngest son, Henry Babbage, who did so in 1910 based on his. However, this primitive form of computer is not as advanced as how we see on computers of today.

The idea of the need to do the computation on our behalf as man, hence the word ‘computer,’ came out of the need to handle complex problems and perform complex computations that is both difficult and takes longer time for man to handle. Especially true during the times of the industrialization era and great world war where the need for such arose. How a computer behaves is what’s in a library of a computer.

The development of computer grew by a lot since laying the foundation by Charles Babbage as was inspired by existing “technologies” of its time. From names of people of the past significant in the foundation of computers such as Ada Lovelace, Konrad Zuse, Alan Turing, John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry, Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper, so on and so forth, up to the present computer giant names such as William Gates, Steve Wozniak, and Steve Jobs, among others, computers of today are bigger in functions than they are their sizes and have found a spot in every people’s lives in both commercial and personal usage.

How do people use computers in their daily lives?

Modern day computers laid out the foundation on how we perform duties of today. It is a lot more efficient and makes the work done in shorter times. From a simple household leisure such is playing games or running multimedia programs, to doing office works, to a more difficult developing programs, up to a more complex computations such is done in NASA, computers made all this possible — all in a single box. What once takes a long time to finish in groups as in seen in companies without computers, can now be finished in shorter times with those.

Computers taking over the world

Also one of the most popular usage of computers is the internet. What once was the trend for telephones and telegrams, has become internet’s – and it is worldwide. Literally, computers taking over the world.
Although initially used for military purposes concurrent to the development of the computer, the internet grew up to become commercialized as it is used today. The internet, in conjunction to and other than the previous means, made communication around the world possible which also gave rise to communication tools such as the social media. To date, billions of people use computers with the internet every day.

Are we really too dependent on computers?

We may be are dependent on computers in relation to the internet given the information age we are in, since the computer age began. But such dependency was initially for a good intention – that is, to keep up with the demands of progress through the efficiency and rate the work demanded is done with computers as both our aid and tools. Let’s face it, there are complex works out there that can only be efficiently done if and only if we have computers. However, one should also ask whether such dependency is good for us. What if, by some chance, this technology called computers and the things it can do were taken from us? What then? Just like a bad addiction, computer dependency outside of our needs and moderation can be harmful for us, its users. An ideal tool for tyrants. While it may sound like it is out of context, it is not. In fact, we are as capable workers as our ancestors were without computers. Although obviously at a cost of the efficiency and ease we’ve known on how we do things with computers. These are not statements about abandoning computers as we know and use them, we’re just waking up with the idea of who we are without computers and who are ancestors were without those. No, we are not worthless without computers – we are not just as capable as someone who does and we alone are not capable as what a complex computer does as a computing machine. But do not be fooled, we are still the ones who made computers as they are today. In a way, we as a mankind is still superior to machines.

Now to the question, “are we too dependent on computers?” — the answer is, we are, at both misuse and discretion. Ultimately, how we use computer, as a technology, in our everyday lives weighs down on how we use it and for what purpose. Is it for the common good? Is it beneficial? In fact, these are questions also answerable by our own selves, as its users.

 

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