Publishing And Digital And Electronic Rights
The following publishing industry article addresses some of the legal issues arising for publishing lawyers, entertainment attorneys, authors, and others as a result of the prevalence of e-mail, the Internet, and so-called “digital” and “electronic publishing”. As usual, publishing law generally and the law of the digital right and electronic right specifically, governing these commercial activities, has been slow to catch up to the activity itself. Yet most of the publishing industry “gray areas” can be resolved by imposing old common-sense interpretations upon new publishing lawyer and entertainment lawyer industry constructs, including the digital right and electronic right, and others. And if after reviewing this article you believe you have a non-jargonized handle on the distinction between “digital right” and “electronic right” in the publishing context, then I look forward to hearing from you and reading your article, too.
1. “Electronic Right[s]” And “Digital Right[s]” Are Not Self-Defining.
All publishing lawyers, entertainment attorneys, authors, and others must be very careful about the use of jargon – publishing industry jargon, or otherwise. Electronic and digital publishing is a recent phenomenon. Although as a publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney and unlike some others, I tend to use the phrase “electronic right” or even “digital right” in the singular number, there probably tends to be no single consensus as to what constitutes and collectively comprises the singular “electronic right” or “digital right”. There has not been sufficient time for the publishing, media, or entertainment industries to fully crystallize accurate and complete definitions of phrases like “electronic publishing”, “web publishing”, “electronic right[s]”, “e-rights”, “digital rights”, or “first electronic rights”.
These phrases are therefore usually just assumed or, worse yet, just plain fudged. Anyone who suggests that these phrases alone are already self-defining, would be wrong.
Accordingly, anyone, including a publishing lawyer or paralegal representing a book publisher or entertainment lawyer representing a studio or producer, who says that an author should do – or not do – something in the realm of the “electronic right” or “digital right” because it is “industry-standard”, should automatically be treated with suspicion and skepticism.
The fact of the matter is, this is a great era for authors as well as author-side publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys, and they should seize the moment. The fact that “industry-standard” definitions of the electronic right and digital right have yet to fully crystallize, (if indeed they ever do), means that authors and author-side publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys can take advantage of this moment in history.
Of course, authors can also be taken advantage of, too – particularly those not represented by a publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney. There is a long and unfortunate history of that happening, well prior to the advent of the electronic right and digital right. It has probably happened since the days of the Gutenberg Press.
Every author should be represented by a publishing lawyer, entertainment attorney, or other counsel before signing any publishing or other agreement, provided that their own economic resources will allow it. (But I am admittedly biased in that regard). Part of the publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney’s function in representing the author, is to tease apart the different strands that collectively comprise the electronic right or digital right. This must be done with updated reference to current technology. If your advisor on this point is instead a family member with a Smith-Corona cartridge typewriter or a Commodore PET, rather than an entertainment attorney or publishing lawyer, then it may be time to seek a new advisor.
Even authors who cannot afford publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney counsel, however, should avoid agreeing in writing to give broad contractual grants to publishers of “electronic publishing” – or the “electronic right”, or “electronic rights” or “digital rights”, or the “digital right”. Rather, in the words of “Tears For Fears”, the author and author counsel had “better break it down again”. Before agreeing to grant anyone the author’s “digital right: or “electronic right”, or any elements thereof, the author and his or her publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney need to make a list of all the possible and manifold electronic ways that the written work could be disseminated, exploited, or digitally or electronically otherwise used. Notice that the author’s list will likely vary, month to month, given the fast pace of technological advancements. For example, these kinds of questions can be considered by the author and publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney alike:
Electronic Digital Right Question #1, Asked By The Publishing Lawyer/Entertainment Attorney To The Author: Can the work be published in whole or in part on the Internet? In the context of an “e-zine”? Otherwise? If so, how? For what purpose? Free to the reader? For a charge to the reader?
Electronic Digital Right Question #2, Asked By The Publishing Lawyer/Entertainment Attorney To The Author: Can the work be disseminated through private e-mail lists or “listservs”? Free to the reader? For a charge to the reader?
Electronic Digital Right Question #3, Asked By The Publishing Lawyer/Entertainment Attorney To The Author: Can the work be distributed on CD-Rom? By whom? In what manner and context?
Electronic Digital Right Question #4, Asked By The Publishing Lawyer/Entertainment Attorney To The Author: To what extent does the author, himself or herself, wish to self-publish this work, either before or after granting any electronic right or any individual “electronic publishing” rights therein to someone else? Will such self-publication occur on or through the author’s website? Otherwise?
Electronic Digital Right Question #5, Asked By The Publishing Lawyer/Entertainment Attorney To The Author: Even if the author does not self-publish, to what extent does the author wish to be able to use and disseminate this writing for his or her own portfolio, publicity, or self-marketing purposes, and perhaps disseminate that same writing (or excerpts thereof) electronically? Should that be deemed invasive of, or competitive with, the electronic right as otherwise contractually and collectively constituted?
The above list is illustrative but not exhaustive. Any author and any publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney will likely think of other elements of the electronic and digital right and other uses as well. The number of possible uses and complexities of the electronic right[s] and digital right[s] definitions will increase as technology advances. In addition, different authors will have different responses to the publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney, to each of the carefully-itemized questions. Moreover, the same author may be concerned with the electronic right in the context of one of his/her works, but may not care so much in the context of a second and different work not as susceptible to digital right exploitation. Therefore, the author must self-examine on these types of electronic and digital right questions before responding to the author’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney and then entering into each individual deal. Only by doing so can the author avoid the pitfalls and perils of relying upon lingo, and relying upon someone else to dictate to them what is the electronic right or digital right “industry standard”. As the publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney should opine, “There is no such thing as ‘industry standard’ in the context of a bilaterally-negotiated contract. The only standard that you the author should be worried about is the motivational ‘standard’ known as: ‘if you don’t ask, you don’t get'”.
Finally, the author should be aware that while the electronic right, digital right, and components thereof can be expressly granted, they can also be expressly reserved to the author, by a mere stroke of the pen or keystroke made by the publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney. For example, if an author wants to expressly reserve the “portfolio uses” mentioned in Electronic Digital Right Question #5 above, then the author should ask his or her publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney to clearly recite this reservation of the author portfolio electronic/digital right in the contract, and leave nothing to chance. In addition, if the author has some negotiating leverage, the author, through the publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney, may be able to negotiate the “safety net” of a “savings clause” which provides words to the effect that: “all rights not expressly granted to publisher, be it an electronic right or digital right or otherwise, are specifically reserved to author for his/her sole use and benefit”. That way, the “default provision” of the contract may automatically capture un-granted rights including any electronic or digital right for the author’s later use. This publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney drafting technique has likely saved empires in the past.
2. Publishers and Entertainment Companies Are Revising Their Boilerplate Agreements, As We Speak, In An Effort To Secure The Electronic Right[s].
It is well-known and should come as no surprise that right now, as we speak, publishers and their in-house and outside counsel publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys are furiously re-drafting their boilerplate contracts to more thoroughly capture the digital and electronic right – that is, all of an author’s digital and electronic rights. The typical publishing agreement drafted by a company-side publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney will recite a broad grant of rights, then followed by a whole laundry-list of “including but not limited to” examples. If the author receives such an onerous-looking rights passage from a publisher or the publisher’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney, the author should not be intimidated. Rather, the author should look at it as an opportunity to make some money and have some fun. The author can first compare the list suggested in Electronic Digital Right Questions #1 through #5 above, to the publisher’s own laundry-list and the author’s own imagination. Then, the author can decide which if any of the separate digital or electronic rights the author wants to fight to keep for himself or herself.
If the publisher tells the author to blindly subscribe to their entire digital or electronic right[s] clause (or clauses), then the author still has the ultimate leverage, which is to walk away from the proposed deal prior to signature. Of course, this strategic approach wouldn’t be advisable in most cases – unless perhaps if the author has other written offers from other publishers already on the table. However, an author shouldn’t be forced by any publisher or any company-side publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney to sign away the electronic right, digital right, or any other rights that the author would rather keep – particularly rights which the author never specifically intended to shop to the publisher in the first instance.
The author should keep in mind the psychology and motivations of the publishers and their publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney counsel when doing all of this. A Vice-President (or above) at the publishing company probably woke up one recent morning, and realized that his/her company lost a great deal of money on a particular project by not taking a prospective license or assignment of an electronic right or digital right from another author. The VP probably then blamed the company’s in-house legal department publishing lawyers or entertainment attorneys, who in turn started frantically re-drafting the company boilerplate to assuage the angry publishing executive and thereby keep their jobs. When in-house publishing lawyers, entertainment attorneys, or others engage in this type of practice (some may call it “drafting from fear”), they tend to go overboard.
Accordingly, what you will probably see is a proverbial “kitchen sink” electronic right clause which has been newly-drafted and perhaps even insufficiently reviewed by the company-side publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys, internally and themselves – wherein the publisher will ask the author for every possible electronic and digital right and every other thing, including (without limitation) the kitchen sink. The only response to such a broad-band electronic right or digital right clause is a careful, deliberate, and methodical reply.
Using the approach outlined in Section #1 above, the author and the author’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney counsel must separately tease apart each use and component of the electronic right and digital right that the publisher’s broad-band clause might otherwise capture, and then opine to the publisher a “yes” or a “no” on each line-item. In other words, the author, through his or her publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney, should exercise his or her line-item veto. It’s the author’s writing that we are talking about, after all. The author should be the one to convert the singular “electronic right” or “digital right” into the laundry-list of electronic rights. That’s why I use the singular number when referring to “electronic right” or “digital right” – I like to let the technologically-advanced author have all the fun making the list. That way, too, the author can tell me what he or she thinks the phrases actually mean, and what the difference between the two meanings really is, if anything.
Next, a few words in defense of the publishers and the publishing lawyers that work for them!
Up to now, this article discussed how phrases like the “digital right” or “electronic right” should not be assumed to be self-defining, even by and between publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys, and how it is incumbent upon authors to reserve needed rights like the digital right or the electronic right to themselves in the context of a publishing deal. Next up, let’s examine concepts such as the digital right or electronic right from the perspective of the publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney, and the standpoint of fairness – who between author and publisher should in fact hold on to the digital right and electronic right, once and assuming that they are first properly defined?
3. Yes, Digital Right And Electronic Right Uses Do Compete With Traditional Book Publishing Uses.
A publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney may be called upon to handle an author-side deal. A publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney may also be called upon to handle, under different factual circumstances, a publisher-side deal. So, now, a few words in defense of publishers, I suppose.
There is a perception in the author and Internet communities that publishers should not be taking broad grants of the digital right or electronic right from authors, since “digital rights and electronic rights do not compete or interfere with traditional book publishing and other media rights”.
Not true. Not anymore. For proof of that fact, ask a few veteran news desk editors whether or not they followed, or were otherwise concerned about, what appeared on the Drudge Report during the Clinton administration. Ask the CFO’s or in-house publishing lawyers of a few traditional encyclopedia companies how they feel about Wikipedia.
Incidentally, although as a publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney and unlike some others, I tend to use the phrase “electronic right” or even “digital right” in the singular number, there probably tends to be no single consensus as to what constitutes and collectively comprises the singular “electronic right” or “digital right”. There has not been sufficient time for the publishing, media, or entertainment industries to fully crystallize accurate and complete definitions of phrases like “electronic publishing”, “web publishing”, “electronic right[s]”, “e-rights”, “digital right[s]”, or “first electronic rights”.
Nevertheless, electronic media and specifically the digital right and electronic right, have already changed our history. You can be sure that they will have some effect, at a minimum, on most author’s individual publishing deals henceforth, and will be the fodder of publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney discussion for years to come. The fact is, electronic uses inherent in the digital right and the electronic right already do compete with older, more traditional uses – particularly because digital and electronic uses are cheaper and faster to deploy, and can potentially reach millions of users in less than, as Jackson Browne might say, the blink of an eye.
Commerce is increasingly relying upon the Internet and other electronic phenomena, and the linchpin of this reliance is the digital right and electronic right. After all, you are reading this article, and ostensibly gleaning some information or material from it. The Web, for example, has already put a sizable dent in dictionary and encyclopedia sales, and anyone who tells you otherwise is probably an employee in a dictionary or encyclopedia publishing company or publishing lawyer in-houser in denial of the digital and electronic right, trying to protect his/her stock options. As the recent and well-known Stephen King pilot program will attest, fiction is the next subject matter area to be affected. Many of us book lovers including publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys don’t like to think about it, but bound hard-copy books may soon become the sole province of book collectors and publishing lawyer vanity bookcases alone. The vast majority of book readers, however, may so wholly embrace the digital right and electronic right that they soon even lose the patience to wait for their “amazon.com” mailed shipment.
Very few people who work in the publishing, media, and entertainment industries, including as amongst fair-minded publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys, should dispute that electronic uses inherent in the digital right and electronic right can easily cannibalize the older and more traditional forms and formats. This cannibalization will only increase, not decrease, as time goes on. Again, the author should put himself/herself in the mind-set of the publisher or its in-house publishing lawyer, when having this digital right/electronic right argument with the publisher or publishing lawyer. The publisher otherwise may want to invest marketing and personnel support in the author’s work, and perhaps even pay the author an advance for the writing. In their view, though, the publisher’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney argues, why should they do so, and not also capture the author’s digital right or electronic right?
The last thing that the publisher or its publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney wants to do is to pay the author – and then discover that the author has “scooped” the publication with the author-reserved digital right or electronic right, stolen the publisher’s proverbial fire, and undermined the publisher’s investment in the author and the writing. The concern of the publisher and the book company’s in-house publishing lawyer or outside entertainment attorney is rational and valid. If the publisher allows the author to potentially undercut the book by exploiting author’s reserved digital right or electronic right, then the publisher is threatening the publisher’s own investment in the author and in the written work. (And on some subliminal level at least, the company’s in-house publishing lawyer also knows that this could come out of his or her future comp).
Compromises are available. One traditional compromise effected between publishing lawyers or entertainment attorneys is a so-called “hold-back” on the digital right or electronic right, whereby the author promises not to use or license-out any author-reserved digital right or electronic right for a certain period of time following publication. The author will need some leverage to get a publisher to agree to such a compromise, though. And a publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney should draft the clause – the author’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney, not the publisher’s counsel!
An author may think that small “portfolio” uses (e.g., tucked inside greeting cards, on an author’s personal web site, etc.) are so minor, that they will never compete with publishing rights granted for the same work, and may tell the publisher or the company’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney as much. The greeting card example does seem innocuous enough, but the publisher and its entertainment or publishing lawyer will likely not agree with the author regarding the author’s personal web site. It is the electronic right or the digital right that really scares publishers and their publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys, and is perceived as threatening to their long-term investment in the author and his or her work.
The distinction to be made here is between hard-copy portfolio uses, and digital right or electronic right “portfolio uses”. The fact is that computer-uploaded text is so easy and quick to transmit, receive, and read. The posted content’s popularity could also spread like digital wildfire, so quickly – for example, if a company hyper-links to the author’s site, or if “Yahoo” bumps the author’s site up in their search-engine pecking-order. Many successes have already been made by virtue of digital right and electronic right self-publishing, and more will follow. Traditional (book) publishers and their publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys already realize this fact. Accordingly, traditional book publishers and their counsel also realize that once they acknowledge an author’s reservation of a “self-promotion” digital right or electronic right, they risk losing control of a potential wildfire dissemination method. Again, this would put the publisher’s investment at risk – but smart business people and companies and the publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys that represent them, don’t put their own investments at risk.
4. The Party To The Contract That Has The Better And More Immediate Means and Resources To Exploit The Electronic Rights, Should Be The One Who Takes The Electronic Rights.
Here is the final point. If a contracting party has no means and resources to exploit a digital right or electronic right or a given bundle of them, then that same party has no business taking (or reserving to themselves) those same digital or electronic rights by contract or even negotiating such a position by and between publishing lawyers or entertainment attorneys. To analogize, if I am a screenwriter who options or sells my script to the Acme Production Company, LLC, through an entertainment lawyer, how should I react if Acme asks me to specifically and contractually grant them “theme park rights” in my literary property in the negotiation between the entertainment attorneys? (Don’t laugh – this practice is now very prevalent in film and entertainment deals).
Well, if Acme doesn’t have its own theme park, I (or my entertainment attorney) now have a powerful argument for reserving the theme park rights to myself instead. “Hey, Acme”, I (or my entertainment attorney) say, “… how do you have the unmitigated gall to ask me for my theme park rights, when you don’t even have the ability to exploit or use them yourself? You don’t even have a theme park!” I (or my entertainment attorney) then make it clear to Acme that I don’t intend to be giving them any trophies that they can put on a shelf to collect proverbial dust.
The same argument can work in the publishing context, particularly as argued between publishing lawyers and entertainment attorneys, regarding the digital right or the electronic right. The author can proverbially cross-examine the publisher (or try to cross-examine the company’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney) as to what successful past uses they have made of other author’s digital rights or electronic rights across multiple books. The company President may fudge the answer, but the publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney representing the publisher must answer truthfully. (One good reason to negotiate through counsel).
If the true answer to the question is “none”, then the author can use the “trophy” argument stated above. If the true answer is, alternatively, “some”, then the author has a negotiating opportunity to compel the publisher and its publishing lawyer and entertainment attorney to contractually commit to digitally and electronically publish the author’s work, too. The author can argue: “I won’t grant you the digital right or electronic right unless you, publisher, contractually commit in advance as to how specifically you will exploit them, and how much money you will spend in their development and marketing”. The author or the author’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney can then carve those electronic right and digital right commitments right directly into the contract, if the author has the leverage to do so. Again, one should not try this at home – but instead use a publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney.
Needless to say, once the author makes the publisher commit, presumably through publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney counsel, to a development budget or other marketing or “release” commitment for the digital right or the electronic right, then both the author and the publisher might thereby also have some basis for numerical valuation of the rights themselves. And, it is an entirely reasonable argument for an author or author’s publishing lawyer or entertainment attorney to say to a publisher that: “I will license/sell you the following listed digital right[s] or electronic right[s] if you pay me the following additional amounts for them:_____________________. And in the blank space, the rights can be listed like menu options as they have been broken out in Item #1 above, each to which separate dollar values – that is, price-tags – are now assigned.
How to Protect Your Electronics From Heat
In our modern society, we have become very dependent upon our electronic gadgets and appliances. Most households (in the U.S) have Personal Computers with an Internet Connection. If we solely looked at the Personal Computer, we do a lot of thing with this product.
- We communicate with our friends, family members and business associates.
- We conduct financial transactions (e.g., buy or sell products on line)
- We create all kinds of documents (which are very important to our personal and business finances/operations)
- We store and play music (in the form of *.mp3 files)
- We (increasingly) store pictures that have sentimental value (and could be tough to replace if lost).
For many people, anytime their “computer dies”, it becomes a major inconvenience in their lives. If you were to look at some other electronic systems that we typically have in our homes, such as
- DVD Players
- Gaming Systems (e.g., Playstation, X-Box, Nintendo, Wii, etc.)
- Audio Entertainment Equipment
- Video Recording Equipment (for you people that like to post videos on YouTube.
- Appliances (such as Central Air Conditioning Systems, Heat Pumps, Microwave Ovens, etc.)
- HDTVs (e.g., LCD or Plasma)
All of these items entertain us, enlighten us and provide us with comfort. These products each require a considerable amount of money to purchase. Further, repairing and/or replacing these products is also quite expensive. Hence, I am quite amazed that people do not do more to protect their investment (in these electronic systems) and do whatever they can to extend the operating life time of these products.
In general, there are three (3) different destructive mechanisms that will either destroy or greatly reduce the operational life-time of your electronics. These three destructive mechanisms are
- Electrical Surge/Spike Events, and
- Electrical Noise
In this article, we are going to talk about HEAT. As we discuss Heat, we will cover the following topics.
- How is Heat destructive to your electronics?
- What can we do about heat – How to Protect Your Electronics from Heat and Extend the Operating Life of our Electronics?
2.0 HOW IS HEAT DESTRUCTIVE TO YOUR ELECTRONICS
Heat is an artifact of electronics. All electronic systems generate heat. Electronic systems accept electrical power (current and voltage) from the power line (via the electrical outlet). The electronic system uses a portion of this electrical power to perform work (e.g., the function that you want it to perform, e.g., play a DVD, cook a bag of popcorn, etc). The remaining portion of this electrical power is converted into heat.
However, heat is also an enemy of electronic systems. Few things are more effective in reducing the operating life-time of an electronic system, than raising the operating temperature of the electronic circuitry within your electronic system. If you were to speak with an Electronics Device Reliability expert, he/she would tell you that for every 10 degrees (Celsius) that you raise the operating temperature of an electrical device; you reduce the operating lifetime of that device by 50%. The impact of heat (in shortening the operating life) of your electronics is “huge”.
3.0 WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT HEAT?
As I mentioned earlier, all electronics generates heat. There is no way to prevent electronics from generating the very thing that can destroy it. However, there are a couple of things that you can do to prevent this heat from doing so much damage.
1. You can work to remove this heat from the electronics (as quickly as it generates it), or
2. You can do things to try to help the electronics to not generate so much heat in the first place.
I will address each of these approaches below.
3.1. REMOVING HEAT FROM THE ELECTRONICS
Many consumer electronic systems were designed with “Heat Removal” in mind. Some of these electronic systems (like desktop computers) contain “internal fans”. These fans were designed into these systems so that they could blow air through the area in which the system electronics resides. The intent behind having these fans to is blow the heat away from these electronics and to help keep them cool.
Other electronic systems contain “vents” (in their outer case) to provide an “escape path” for heat. Many of these vents are located at the top or in the “back-end” of the electrical system. On this basis, I have the following recommendations to permit the removal of heat from your electronics.
Make sure and keep papers, books, dust and other items from “blocking” the vents of these systems.
Leaving these items on top of your (DVD Player for example) will block the vents, and will not allow for heat to escape from your DVD Player. This will cause the temperature (surrounding the electronics) within your DVD player to rise; which will (in-turn) reduce the operating lifetime of your DVD player.
Make sure that the “back-end” of the electronic system is not “butt-up” against the wall or an entertainment cabinet.
It is important to make sure that there is sufficient air/ventilation space between the vents (in the back end) and the wall/cabinet to allow for Heat Removal.
Make sure and have your appliances (like your Central Air Conditioning system or Heat Pump) serviced.
Whenever these appliances are serviced, the service professional will do various things (like clean out dust and debris from ventilation path), therefore maintaining an unobstructed path for heat to escape from these systems.
Make sure that the fan (inside some of your systems) is working.
If this fan stops working, then you need to get it repaired quickly. Failure to do this will result in your electronic system having an early meeting with the “grim reaper” or an electronic waste disposal site.
3.2 REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF HEAT THAT THE ELECTRONICS GENERATE IN THE FIRST PLACE
Another approach to protecting your electronics from heat is to take steps to try to prevent your electronics from generating excessive heat in the first place. The amount of heat that is generated within an electronic system is often referred to as being related to the following expression for resistive loss: I^2XR, where:
- I represents the amount of current flowing through an electronic system and
- R represents the load impedance (or resistance) within this electronic system; and
- I^2 denotes ” I being raised to the 2nd Power, or “I-squared”
From this mathematical expression, you can see that if we were able to reduce the amount of current flowing through an electrical system, this would certainly help to reduce the amount of heat generated within this electrical system.
QUESTION: How can you reduce the current that an electrical system uses? Doesn’t it require a certain amount of current to do its job? The answer to this question is “Yes”, an electrical system does require a certain amount of current and voltage (electrical power) to do its job. However, it doesn’t need to use anymore current than that. Hence, we recommend that you use TVSS (Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors) components in order to reduce the current level (flowing into your electrical system).
Now, I know that some of you may be “scratching your heads” and wondering, “How in the world will this reduce the amount of current flowing into my electronic system” and (in turn reduce the amount of heat that it generates)? The answer is this: Anytime there is a large amount of electrical noise or spikes, or other forms of distortion in the electrical voltage and current in the power line, this also results in the flow of additional current into your electrical system. By using the TVSS components, you are eliminating this excessive current (due to noise, glitches, etc.) from the “power line” current, flowing into your electronic system.
In this case, you have now accomplished the following:
1. You have decreased the amount of current flowing into your electronic system, (which is the “I” in the expression “I^2 X R”) – which helps a lot to reduce the amount of heat that the system generates.
2. By reducing the heat that the electrical system generates, you are now lowering the ambient (or surrounding) temperature in which your electronics operates.
3. Lowering the ambient temperature will often times also reduce the load impedance/resistance in your electronic system (e.g., the “R” in this expression) as well.
QUESTION: How can you reduce the load impedance/resistance in an electronic system? Isn’t that a design feature of the electronic system? The answer to this question is “Yes it is”. You cannot change the load impedance/resistance by very much. But, the reason why lowering the ambient temperature will also reduce the load impedance/resistance is that many resistors have (what is called) a positive temperature coefficient. This means that as the ambient temperature goes up, does the resistor value of this particular resistor.
However, the converse is also true. If you were to lower the ambient (or surrounding) temperature, then you would also lower the resistor value as well.
SO LET’S RECAP THE BENEFITS OF USING TVSS COMPONENTS:
- Using TVSS components lower the amount of current flowing through your electronic system.
- Lowering this current reduces the amount of heat that the electronic system generates.
- This lowers the ambient temperature for the system electronics.
- Lowering the ambient temperature also lowers the load impedance/resistance (R) within the electronic system.
Both the reduction of current (and the resulting reduction of the load impedance) would serve to significantly reduce the amount of heat that the electronics system will generates.
4.0 OTHER ARTICLES IN THIS SERIES
Other articles in this series are listed below.
- How to Protect Your Electronics from Electrical Surge/Spike Events
- How to Protect Your Electronics from Electrical Noise
In this article, we spoke about “heat” and how effective it is in reducing the operating life-time of your electronics. Heat is one of the three (3) destructive mechanisms that will either destroy or shorten the operational life-time of your electronics. The remaining two mechanisms are
- Electrical Surge/Spike Events, and
- Electrical Noise
We have also described some guidelines on how to protect your electronics from heat, and to extend the operating life-time of your electronics. In particular, we mentioned the following approaches:
1. Use (and do not thwart) the “Heat Removal” features of your electronic systems
- Make sure that Internal Fans are working and
- Make sure that vents are not blocks and that there is plenty of air space around the Electronic system to allow for the escape of heat.
2. Use TVSS (Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor) components to regulate the amount of voltage (and in turn) current that is flowing into your electronic systems: Minimizes heat generation due to resistive loss.
Study on Electronic Money
Commerce refers to all the activities surrounding the purchase or sale of goods or services. As we step into the next century, the Internet promises to bring unpredictable change in the society. Spanning the entire globe, crossing all boundaries, the net has redefined the methods of communication work, study, education, interaction, Entertainment, Health, Trade and commerce. There are some activities in commerce such as marketing, sales, payment, fulfillment, customer service etc.
Electronic commerce is the application of communication and information sharing technologies among trading partners to the aim of business objectives. Electronic Commerce is associated with the buying and selling of information, products and services via computer networks.
Electronic Commerce is a new way of conducting managing and executing business transactions using computer and telecommunication networks. Electronic Commerce refers to the paperless exchange of business information using EDI (Electronic Data Interchange), Electronic Mail, EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer) and other networks based technologies. Electronic Commerce applications started in the early 1970s, with such innovations as EFT.
Objectives Of The Study:
Purpose of the study is to diagnose the state of efficiency in itself and trace out the factors responsible for lower or higher efficiency in discharging various operation and activities of analysis in Electronic Money security.
1. To review rational and motives underlying term lending agencies in the present day complex mechanism of Electronic Money.
2. To analyze the institutional and organizational constraints hampering efficiency, efficiency and effectiveness of Electronic Money.
3. To assess their quality performance through structural analysis.
4. To examine the impact of new business policies and liberalization on these Electronic Money.
5. To study and analyze the security of Electronic Money transaction.
6. To suggest possible remedies for these institutions to halt their present declining trends.
7. To suggest the techniques for lending to higher growth of Electronic Money security.
Advantages Of Electronic Money:
Digital cash will allow for the immediate transfer of funds from an individual’s personal account to a businesses account, without any actual paper transfer of money. This offers a great convenience to many people and businesses alike.
Banks can offer many services whereby a customer can transfer funds, purchase stocks, and offer a variety of other services without having to handle the physical cash or cheques. Customers do not have to wait in lines, and this provides a lower hassle environment.
Disadvantages Of Electronic Money :
Although there are many benefits to digital cash, there are also many significant disadvantages. These include fraud, failure of technology, possible tracking of individuals and the loss of human interaction. It is very common that almost all systems have drawbacks. However, the question that needs to be asked is whether the advantages of using the system overpass the disadvantages.
Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent years. Hacking into bank accounts and the illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a widespread invasion of privacy, and has promoted identity theft.
There is also a pressing issue in regards to the technology involved in digital cash. Power failures, loss of records, undependable software often cause a major setback in promoting the technology.
Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent year. Hacking into bank accounts and illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a wide spread invasion of privacy and has promoted identity theft.
Power failures, loss of records and undependable software often cause a major set back in promoting the technology.
Frame Work Of Electronic Commerce:
Many people things Electronic Commerce is just having a web site, but Electronic Commerce is much more than that. There are dozens of applications of Electronic Commerce such as home banking, shopping in online stores and malls, buying stocks, finding a job, conducting an auction and collaborating electronically on research and development projects.
To execute these applications, it is necessary to have supporting information and organizational infrastructure and system.
Electronic Commerce applications are supported by infrastructures and their implementation is dependent on four major areas such as
4.protocols and organizations
Peoples – Buyers, sellers, intermediaries, services etc.
public policy – Taxes, legal, and privacy issues, domain names.
technical standards – For documents, securities, and network protocols.
Organizations – Partners, competitors, associations, Govt. services.
There are some other area of Electronic Commerce infrastructure such as
1.Common business services infrastructure – security smart cards / authentication, Electronic Payment, directories / catalogs.
2.Messaging and information distribution infrastructure – EDI, Electronic Mail, HTTP.
3.Multimedia content and network publishing infrastructure – HTML, Java, WWW, VRML.
4.Network infrastructure – Telecom, cable, TV, wireless, Internet, WAN, MAN, LAN, Intranet, Extranet.
5.Interfacing infrastructure – To databases, customers and applications.
Electronic Money System Model:
The e-money system is a mechanism that facilitates payments – generally of limited value – in which e-money can be considered as an electronic surrogate for coins and banknotes. The e-money system is described on the basis of a model with a set of sub-systems through which electronic value (EV) is transferred, under the responsibility of a System Supervisor who monitors the security of EV creation, EV extinguishment and EV circulation within the system.
The three main elements which make up our e-money system model are EV, EV circulation between sub-systems and supervision. Put together, these elements constitute the core of the e-money system model. The notions of transactions, compensation, EV life cycle and actors then complete this model.
EV is a monetary value represented by a claim on an EV Issuer, which is:
– stored on an electronic device;
– issued on receipt of funds for an amount not less in value than the monetary value issued;
– accepted as a means of payment by undertakings other than the issuer.
The EV circulation starts with a first phase called EV creation, and ends with a final phase called EV extinguishment.
This model does not impose any restriction on the number of sub-systems that form an e-money system.
Transactions On The Internet:
All the transactions on the internet take place using the customer’s personal computer and the seller’s web server. Customers use a web browser to place on order with the merchant and specify their mode of payment. In the case of an online transaction the customer has the option of paying by credit card or smart card the customers can also to pay using electronic cash or a digital cheque . The software on the seller’s server has to verify the order and has to settle the transaction by receiving authorization for the transfer of funds from a bank or the credit and acquirer. It is possible that the applications on the customer’s, merchant’s and bank’s are not same. Hence the interaction across this step is achieved using a gateway, which is a link between applications.
The gateway allows for protocol conversion and communicates with the bank using the bank’s private network or the internet. Gateway, more specifically common gateway interface (CGI) is a specification for communicating data between an information server, for example server, and other application. CGI is used wherever the web server needs to send or receive data from another application, such as database. A CGI script is a program that negotiates the movement of data between the web server and an outside application. It typically passes data, filled in by the user in an HTML form, from the web server to a database.
In any business transaction, the customer and merchant enter into an agreement. According to this agreement the merchant supplies the goods and services that the customer requests for while the customer transfers funds to the merchant in lien for the goods received. Thus the payment is the most important part in the sales cycle.
The general requirements of payment system’s are-
(1)Confidentiality – the user expects a secure system of payment.
(2)Authentication – A method to verify the buyer’s identity before payment is authorized.
(3)Integrity – It ensuring that information will not be accidentally or maliciously altered or destroyed during transmission.
(4)Authorization – It allows the merchant to determine if the buyer actually has funds to pay for the purchase. The merchant verifies that the customer’s bank account has sufficient balance to honour the cheque amount.
(5)Privacy – There might be situations where both the customer and merchant would want to ensure the privacy of sale. example – a business conducting research might not the details of its purchases.
Types Of Electronic Payments:
The various methods that have been developed for making payments on the internet are electronic versions of the traditional payment systems that we use everyday. In our daily life we use cash, credit cards or cheques to make payments. All these systems are digitally incorporated on the web as e-cash, electronic cheques and credit cards.
Credit cards are the most popular payment method for cyberspace customer shopping today.
(a) The card holder- A customer or a corporate purchaser who uses credit cards to pay merchants.
(b) The merchant- the entity that accepts credit cards and offers goods or services in exchange for payments.
(c) The card issuer- A financial institution that establishes accounts for cardholders and issues credit cards.
(d) The acquirer- A financial institution that establishes an accounts for merchants and acquires the vouchers of authorized sales slips.
(2)Electronic Wallet Or Digital Wallet:
Secure electronic transaction (SET) protocol was initially designed by visa and master card in 1997. SET protocol meets the four security requirements for EC as SSL does: authentication, encryption, integrity and non repudiation. In addition, SET defines the message format, certificate format, and procedure of message exchange. The role of payment gateway is to connect the internet and proprietary networks of banks. Each participating entity needs its own certificates. To keep the consumer’s certificate in his or her personal computer or IC card, software called the electronic wallet or digital wallet.
It is also known as check card, is a card that authorizes the EFT. EFT ,Designed to transfer a certain amount of money from one account to another. The customer’s terminal can be automatic teller machine (ATM), PC, or telephone terminals. When we use a debit card, the amount is immediately deducted from our checking or savings accounts. The debit card allows we to spend only what is in our bank account.
Advantages Of Using Debit Card :
1.Obtaining a debit card is much easier than obtaining a credit card .
2.Using a debit card instead of writing checks saves you from showing personal identification .
3.Using a debit card frees we from carrying cash, travelers checks or a check book.
4.Marchants accepts debit cards more readily than checks.
At present we carry many plastic cards such as credit cards, debit cards, charge cards, diving licenses, health insurance cards, employee or student identification cards and other.
Now for a moment if we think that all these cards are replaced by a single plastic card carrying all the information of the dozen or fifty cards. Not only dose it lighten our load, it makes identification and purchasing easer for us. Credit, debit and charge cards currently store limited information about us in a magnetic stripe. And unlike a smart card, a credit card dose not contain cash – it only contains a number of an account that can be charged.
A smart card can store hundred times more information than a magnetic striped plastic card. A smart contains private user information such as financial facts, private encryption key, account information, credit cards numbers, health insurance information and so on. The current generation of smart cards includes IC chips with programmable functions.
(5)Closed Vs Open Electronic Cash System:
Electronic cash system can be either closed or open.
A closed system implies that the cash value in the IC card can only be recharged from a banks accounts, and the used money, which was collected in the memory of the IC card readers will be transferred to the receivers bank account. The direct transfer between IC cards is prohibited.
In open system allows direct transfer of money value between IC cards. Because Govt. are afraid of the risk of lost traceability money laundering.
Nowadays the traditional bills and coins are giving way to the electronic money. With the wide spread of Internet this transformation is inevitable. It is obvious that digital cash is the future of exchange mechanism. It will surely condense many of the prevailing inconveniences such as carrying large amount of cash and will resolve many of the in-security issues experienced today. The electronic money would not only be quicker and cheaper but also more robust and easy to authenticate. People would not be apprehensive in using it as it will respect their privacy and will allow even small merchants to carry out the business all over the world. The digital cash will also reduce the cost of transferring the money internationally, which is quite expensive at present. The electronic money will not replace the traditional form of transaction completely but will facilitate it surely.